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Issue No.02 - April-June (2006 vol.28)
pp: 4-16
ABSTRACT
To shed light on a lesser-known period of the ENIAC, which was announced to the public exactly 60 years ago, this article tells how the ENIAC underwent the metamorphosis from a static computer-configured and reconfigured by the repetitive plugging of cables-to become a forerunner of today's stored-program computers
INDEX TERMS
ENIAC, Stored Program Computer, Richard F. Clippinger
CITATION
Hans Neukom, "The Second Life of ENIAC", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.28, no. 2, pp. 4-16, April-June 2006, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2006.39
REFERENCES
1. M.R. Williams, A History of Computing Technology 2nd ed., IEEE CS Press, 2000.
2. H.H. Goldstine, The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann, Princeton Univ. Press, 1972, p. 184.
3. H.H. Goldstine, The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann.
4. J. von Neumann, "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 15, no. 4, 1993, pp. 27–75.
5. D.A. Grier, "Obituary to Herman H. Goldstine," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 26, no. 3, 2004, pp. 2–3.
6. H.H. Goldstine, The Computer from Pascal to von Nemuann, p. 185.
7. H. Lukoff, From Dits to Bits: A Personal History of the Electronic Computer, Robotics Press, 1979.
8. N. Metropolis and J. Worlton, "A Trilogy on Errors in the History of Computing," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 2, no. 1, 1980, pp. 49–59.
9. H.H. Goldstine, The Computer from Pascal to von Nemuann, p. 199.
10. M. Campell-Kelly and M.R. Williams, The Moore School Lectures: Theory and Techniques for Design of Electronic Digital Computers, Charles Babbage Institute Reprint Series for the History of Computing, vol. 9, M. Campell-Kelly, ed., MIT Press, 1985.
11. M.V. Wilkes, "Mauchly's Position on von Neumann's Role in Drafting the EDVAC Report," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 2, no. 4, 1980, pp. 376–377.
12. H.H. Goldstine, The Computer from Pascal to von Nemuann, p. 233.
13. R.F. Clippinger, A Logical Coding System Applied to the ENAIC, BRL 673, report, Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground, 29 Sept. 1948.
14. H.H. Goldstine and J. von Neumann, "Planning and Coding Problems for an Electronic Computing Instrument," Papers of John von Neumann on Computing and Computer Theory, vol. 12, Charles Babbage Inst. Reprint Series for the History of Computing, W. Aspray and A. Burks, eds., MIT Press, 1986, pp. 151–306.
15. R.D. Richtmyer, "The Post-War Computer Development," The American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 72, no. 2, 1965, pp. 8–14.
16. A.K. Goldstine, A Report on the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), Univ. of Philadelphia, Moore School of Electrical Eng., 1 June 1946.
17. J. Van der Spiegel et al., "The ENIAC: History, Operation and Reconstruction in VLSI," The First Computers: History and Architectures, R. Rojas and U. Hashagen, eds., MIT Press, 2000, pp. 121–178.
18. This feature is described in paragraph 4.5.3 Magnitude Discrimination Programs, in Goldstine, A Report on the ENIAC, Ref. 16.
19. Wilkes, "Mauchly's Position on von Neumann's Role in Drafting the EDVAC Report," IEEE Annals, p. 6.
20. I am referring to the Sperry Univac 9700 computer, which was based on this architecture, and with which I was working at that time as a support engineer for Sperry Univac in Switzerland.
21. B.W. Fritz, "The Women of ENIAC," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 18, no. 3, 1996, pp. 13–28.
22. W. Aspray, "Pioneer Day, NCC '82: History of the Stored-Program Concept," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 4, no. 4, 1982, pp. 358–361.
23. E.C. Berkeley, Giant Brains or Machines That Think, John Wiley & Sons, 1949.
24. The IBM card punch is normally referred to as "Printer" in the original source documents. It is, however, clear from these documents that cards were punched and then manually transferred to a printer for offline printing.
25. H.H. Goldstine and J. von Neumann, "On the Principles of Large Scale Computing Machines," Papers of John von Neumann on Computing and Computer Theory, vol. 12, Charles Babbage Inst. Reprint Series for the History of Computing, W. Aspray and A. Burks, eds., MIT Press, 1986, pp. 317–348.
26. It took 3,000 add-cycles to mechanically read a card in the IBM card reader and move its data to the Constant Transmitter.
27. B.W. Fritz, Description and Use of the Eniac Converter Code, TN 141, tech. note, Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., Nov. 1949.
28. B.W. Fritz, Description of the Eniac Converter Code, BRLM 582, memorandum report, Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Dec. 1951.
29. K. Kempf, "Electronic Computers within the Ordnance Corps," historical monograph, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Nov. 1961; http://ftp.arl.mil/~mike/comphist61ordnance /.
30. M.H. Weik, "The ENIAC Story," Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground, 1961; http://ftp.arl.mil/~mike/comphisteniac-story.html .
31. M.R. Williams, A History of Computing Technology, p. 322.
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