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Biographies
October-December 2005 (vol. 27 no. 4)
pp. 93-96
Thomas Haigh, Editor, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Kenneth Iverson, whose dissatisfaction with conventional mathematical notation as a graduate student led to the development of the APL and J languages, died in Toronto, Ontario on 19 October 2004 in his 84th year. This article reviews his early education, his graduate work at Harvard, and his careers with IBM in the United States and I. P. Sharp in Canada, and his retirement when he developed J, which he considered a modern dialect of APL.

1. H.W. March and H.C. Wolff, Calculus, McGraw-Hill, 1917.
2. D.B. McIntyre, The Story of APL and J, in preparation.
3. K.E. Iverson, "Machine Solutions of Linear Differential Equations: Applications to a Dynamic Economic Model," doctoral thesis, Dept. of Applied Mathematics, Harvard Univ., 1954.
4. K.E. Iverson, A Programming Language, John Wiley and Sons, 1962.
5. Ibid., p. vii.
6. F.P. BrooksJr. and K.E. Iverson, Automatic Data Processing, John Wiley and Sons, 1963.
7. A.D. Falkoff, K.E. Iverson, and E.H. Sussenguth, "A Formal Description of SYSTEM/360," IBM Systems J., vol. 3, no. 3, 1964, pp. 198-261.
8. A.D. Falkoff, "The IBM Family of APL Systems," IBM Systems J., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 416-432.
9. J.E. Samett, Programming Langauges: History and Fundamentals, Prentice-Hall, 1969, p. 712.
10. K.E. Iverson, "Notation as a Tool of Thought," Comm. ACM, vol. 23, no. 8, 1980, pp. 444-465.
11. A.N. Whitehead, An Introduction to Mathematics, Oxford Univ. Press, 1948, p. 39.
12. K.E. Iverson, APL in Exposition, IBM Philadelphia Scientific Center Tech. Report No. 320-3010, IBM, 1972.
13. K.E. Iverson, "A Personal View of APL," IBM Systems J., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 582-593.
14. K.E. Iverson, J Introduction and Dictionary, Iverson Software, 1991, 1994, 1995, and 1996.
15. K.E. Iverson, Concrete Math Companion, Iverson Software, 1995.
16. R.L. Graham, D.E. Knuth, and O. Patashnik, Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science, Addison-Wesley, 1988.

Index Terms:
Programming languages, array languages, APL, J, Kenneth Iverson
Citation:
Thomas Haigh, "Biographies," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 93-96, Oct.-Dec. 2005, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2005.55
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