Issue No.04 - October-December (2005 vol.27)
Bruce O.B. Williams , Birkbeck College, University of London
Roger G. Johnson , Birkbeck College, University of London
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2005.64
Multiplication is vital to the conduct of commerce but is time-consuming and error-prone. Many aids were developed over two centuries to address these issues. This article surveys the development of the most widely used of these, the ready reckoner. The underlying principles of reckoner design are explained. To explain their range of use, over 1,250 entries from the major national library catalogues and elsewhere have been classified by application, target user, date, price and format. A sample of different styles are illustrated.
Ready reckoners, pre-electronic computing, computing aids, multiplication aid
Bruce O.B. Williams, Roger G. Johnson, "Ready Reckoners", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.27, no. 4, pp. 64-80, October-December 2005, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2005.64