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Mind and Network
July-September 2005 (vol. 27 no. 3)
pp. 104, 103
Hunter Crowther-Heyck, University of Oklahoma
A new conception of humans emerged and spread from the 1940s to the 1960s. It was linked to a cybernetic vision of man-computer symbiosis and to the conviction that communication was fundamental to the problem-solving process. This vision inspired an influential group of patrons and researchers to set a new agenda for computing.

1. I discuss this new model of human thought and action in much greater detail in Herbert A. Simon: The Bounds of Reason in Modern America, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2005.
2. V. Bush, "As We May Think," Atlantic Monthly, July 1945, p. 101–108.
3. T. Bardini, Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing, Stanford Univ. Press, 2000.
4. J.C.R. Licklider, "Man–Computer Symbiosis," IRE Trans. Human Factors in Engineering HFE-1, vol. 4, no. 1, 1960, pp. 4–11.
5. Because the postwar exponents of operations research, cybernetics, systems theory, decision theory, game theory, control theory, artificial intelligence, and early programming all conducted mathematical, behavioral analyses of system functions, recent historians have come to label this constellation of fields the systems sciences.
6. J. von Neumann's, "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC" originally appeared 30 June 1945. It was reprinted with typographical corrections in the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 15, no. 4, 1993, pp. 27–75.
7. J.C.R. Licklider and R. Taylor, "The Computer as a Communications Device," Science and Technology no.76, Apr. 1968, pp. 21–31.

Index Terms:
Internet, man-computer symbiosis, ARPA, J.C.R. Licklider, John von Neumann, networks
Citation:
Hunter Crowther-Heyck, "Mind and Network," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 104, 103, July-Sept. 2005, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2005.41
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