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Biographies
April-June 2005 (vol. 27 no. 2)
pp. 89-94
Thomas Haigh, University of Wisconsin

1. T. Haigh, "ADAPSO and the Service Bureau Industry, 1961–1968," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 26, no. 1, 2004, pp. 75-85 and T. Haigh, "ADAPSO, Time-Sharing Firms, and Software Companies: 1968–1975," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 26, no. 1, 2004, pp. 67-73.
2. Wessel usually argued vigorously in favor of allowing competitors to join. In July 1972, for example, he advised that IBM should be allowed to join ADAPSO at a time when software section mainstay Marty Goetz favored amending the association's bylaws to deny it even associate membership. M.R. Wessel, "Letter to Larry Welke, July 13, 1972," ADAPSO Records (CBI 172), Charles Babbage Inst. (CBI), Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Hereafter this collection will be referred to as CBI 172.
3. M.R. Wessel, "Memorandum to ADAPSO Officers and Directors on Application of the Federal Antitrust Laws to ADAPSO's Activities," 1966, Milton R.Wessel Papers (CBI 120), CBI. Hereafter this collection will be referred to as CBI 120.
4. The roundtable series was discussed recently by participants in L. Johnson, ed., "Industry Roundtables Workshop," ADAPSO Reunion Transcript, May 2–4, 2002, iBusiness Press, 2003, pp. 215-319.
5. T. Farewell, "Letter to Milton Wessel, March 29, 1977," CBI 120.
6. A copy of the contracts reference dictionary is preserved in CBI 172.
7. L. Johnson ed. "Contracts Reference Directory Workshop," ADAPSO Reunion Transcript, May 2–4, 2002, iBusiness Press, 2003, pp. 257-293.
8. L. Welke oral history interview by T. Haigh, 3 May 2002, OH 369, CBI, p. 14.
9. L. Keet oral history interview by P.L. Frana, 3 May 2002, OH 341, CBI, p. 14.
10. L. Johnson ed. "Big Eight Accounting Firms Workshop," ADAPSO Reunion Transcript, May 2–4, 2002, iBusiness Press, 2003, pp. 209-236. The apparently fluid line between software products and services led several accounting firms to attempt to enter the packaged software business during the 1970s.
11. "ADAPSO Position Paper: Incremental Marketing of Computer Services by Certified Public Accountants as an Unlawful Tie-In Sale," CBI 172, not dated.
12. "ADAPSO Position Paper: The Incremental Marketing of Computer Services Generally,"24 Feb. 1976, CBI 172.
13. Both of these position papers are to be found in the bound volume "ADAPSO Position Papers" in CBI 172. Wessel explored similar ideas in a number of books and articles, including B. Gilchrist and M. Wessel, Government Regulation of the Computer Industry, AFIPS Press, 1972.
14. 1984 Annual Report, CBI 172.
15. ADAPSO Microcomputer Software Association (MCSA) board meeting, 21 Feb. 1988, CBI 172.
16. The story of IBM's relationship with ADAPSO in the 1970s and 1980s is explored in M. Goetz, "Memoirs of a Software Pioneer: Part 2," IEEE Annals, vol. 24, no. 4, 2002, pp. 14-31.
17. The later careers of both Larry Welke and Rick Crandall show some of the new groups that emerged to facilitate interaction between business leaders in the field. T. Haigh, "Biography: Larry A. Welke," IEEE Annals, vol. 26, no. 4, 2004, pp. 85-91; T. Haigh, "Biography: Richard L. (Rick) Crandall," IEEE Annals, vol. 26, no. 4, 2004, pp. 79-85.
1. These facts are drawn primarily from L.J. Schoenberg, oral history interview by M. Campbell-Kelly, 3 May 2002, OH 343, Charles Babbage Inst. (CBI). In the remainder of this article, otherwise unattributed information is derived from this source.
2. CBI OH 343, p. 15.
3. CBI OH 343, p. 17 for the quotation. In a private communication with me on 9 Jan. 2005, Schoenberg suggested that AGS once had 500 programmers working on Bell Labs projects, primarily Unix.
4. ADAPSO, "Board Minutes,"10 Feb 1974.
5. ADAPSO, "Board Minutes,"17 Apr. 1977.
6. Private communication from L. Schoenberg, 7 Jan. 2005.
7. "Information Bank Abstracts," Wall Street J.,15 Mar. 1983, p. 8.
8. L. Cauley, "Nynex to Sell Most of AGS, Take a Charge," Wall Street J.,5 Nov. 1993, p. B3.
9. D. Cuff, "AGS Founder is Closer to Billion-Dollar Goal," New York Times,7 Mar. 1988, p. D4.
10. P. Farhi, "Til Other Offer Do Us Part: C3 Inc. Finds Clue Why Suitor Strayed," New York Times,11 Jun. 1988.
11. D.P. Levin, "More Information Units Will Be Sold By Nynex," New York Times,5 Nov. 1993, p. D4.

Citation:
Thomas Haigh, "Biographies," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 89-94, April-June 2005, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2005.22
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