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Issue No.01 - January-March (2005 vol.27)
pp: 38-55
ABSTRACT
This article describes the coordination of worldwide efforts in IBM that were launched in the 1970s to ensure implementation of Far Eastern language requirements with IBM products, in order that IBM would maintain its leading role in the IT industry.
INDEX TERMS
Double-Byte Coded Character Set, Standards, Breakthrough Technologies, Programming, Kanji, Fonts
CITATION
Kurt Hensch, Toshiaki Igi, Masumi Iwao, Akira Oda, Toru Takeshita, "IBM History of Far Eastern Languages in Computing, Part 3: IBM Japan Taking the Lead, Accomplishments through the 1990s", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.27, no. 1, pp. 38-55, January-March 2005, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2005.11
REFERENCES
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2. F.R. Guentsch, Logischer Entwurf eines digitalen Rechnergerätes mit mehreren asynchron laufenden Trommeln und automatischem Schnellspeicherbetrieb (Logical Design of a Digital Computer with Multiple Asynchronous Rotating Drums and Automatic High Speed Memory Operation) , internal report, Computing Center of Technische Universität Berlin, 1956, and doctoral dissertation, Technische Universität Berlin, D 83, 1957 (in German).
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4. T. Igi personal documents archives.
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6. IBM Japanese Information Processing System/General Description, N:GA18-1160-0, IBM Japan Ltd., 1987 (in Japanese).
7. Kanji Character Set and Code Reference Manual for IBM 5550 Kanji Work Station, N:GC18-2040, IBM Japan Ltd., 1983 (in Japanese).
8. IBM System/370— DBCS Application Primer (Enable programs for Chinese/Japanese/Korean), GC18-9059, IBM Japan Ltd., Nov. 1987.
9. DBCS Design Guide— IBM System/370 Software, C18-9095, IBM Japan Ltd., June 1988.
10. Prepared by the IBM Thailand Globalization Competency Center. IBM Thailand has one of several such centers that IBM has established in selected major markets. These centers are responsible to identify and analyze national requirements that are to be addressed in the development of IBM products.
11. Prepared by the IBM Japan Globalization Competency Center. IBM Japan has one of several such centers that IBM has established in selected major markets. These centers are responsible to identify and analyze national requirements that are to be addressed in the development of IBM products.
12. Kanji Character Set and Code Reference Manual for IBM 2245 Kanji Printer System, N:GA18-1018, IBM Japan Ltd., 1973, (in Japanese).
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15. Japan Industrial Standard, JIS X 0208:1997, 7- and 8-bit Information Interchange Coded Kanji Set, JSA, 1997 (in Japanese).
16. Japan Industrial Standard, JIS X 0212:1999, Information Interchange Kanji Code— Additional Kanji, JSA, 1999 (in Japanese).
17. Japan Industrial Standard, JIS X 0213:2000, 7- and 8-bit Information Interchange Coded Expanded Kanji Set, JSA, 2000 (in Japanese).
18. Kanji Character Set and Code Reference Manual for IBM Kanji Systems, N:GC18-0785, IBM Japan Ltd., 1986 (in Japanese).
19. K. Shibano ed. JIS Kanji Dictionary, Japan Standards Assoc., 1997 (in Japanese).
20. K. Lunde, CJKV Information Processing: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese Computing, O'Reilly & Associates, 1998.
21. K. Fowels, "Unicode Evolves," BYTE, Mar. 1997, pp. 105-110.
22. The Unicode Consortium, The Unicode Standard, v. 3.0, Addison-Wesley Longman, Apr. 2000.
23. K. Hensch personal documents archives.
24. Prepared by IBM Japan Product Assurance Department, at Yamato, Japan.
25. K. Hensch, Research and Development in IBM, History of Far Eastern Languages in Computing, 2nd private edition, Roehm TYPOfactory GmbH, Sindelfingen, Germany, 2004.
26. Instructions for Chinese voters. This was a flyer that was dropped into everybody's mailbox in San Francisco, California, prior to a local election in 2002.
27. S. Zhai, "What's in the Eyes for Attentive Input," Comm. ACM, vol. 46, no. 3, Mar. 2003, pp. 34-39.
28. Y. Kiyokane and Y. Suehiro eds. Internationalization Programming—, I18N Handbook, Kyouritsu Shuppan, 1998 (in Japanese).
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