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IBM History of Far Eastern Languages in Computing, Part 2: Initial Efforts for Full Kanji Solutions, Early 1970s
January-March 2005 (vol. 27 no. 1)
pp. 27-37
The authors describe the intricacies of character encoding, processing, and printing involved in IBM?s successful efforts to develop the first commercial general Kanji computer system. Later during this time frame, the first commercial Kanji system was introduced. IBM was also launching development of the first computerized newspaper publishing system to offer Kanji capability.

1. K. Hensch, "IBM History of Far Eastern Languages in Computing, Part 1: Requirements and Initial Phonetic Product Solutions in the 1960s," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 27, no. 1, Jan.–Mar. 2005, pp. 17-26.
2. See Figures 11 and 12, p. 23, in K. Hensch, "IBM History of Far Eastern Languages in Computing, Part 1," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing.
3. K. Hensch et al., "IBM History of Far Eastern Languages in Computing, Part 3: IBM Japan Taking the Lead, Accomplishments through Early 1990s", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 27, no. 1, Jan.–Mar. 2005, pp. 38-55. See the section on "Start of Kanji standardization efforts."
4. K. Hensch personal documents archive.
5. The Hiragana characters are displayed in Sets 1 and 2 of Figure 8, p. 20, in K. Hensch, "IBM History of Far Eastern Languages in Computing, Part 1," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing.
6. K. Lunde, CJKV Information Processing: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese Computing, O'Reilly & Associates, 1998.
7. IBM Kanji Information Processing System, N:G518-5001-0, brochure, IBM Japan Ltd. 1971 (in Japanese).
8. Kanji Character Set and Code Reference Manual for IBM 2245 Kanji Printer System, N:GA18-1018, IBM Japan Ltd., 1973 (in Japanese).
9. Kanji Character Set and Code Reference Manual for IBM 5550 Kanji Work Station, N:GC18-2040, IBM Japan Ltd., 1983 (in Japanese).
10. Kanji Character Set and Code Reference Manual for IBM Kanji Systems, N:GC18-0611, IBM Japan Ltd., Aug. 1979 (in Japanese).
11. Kanji Character Set and Code Reference Manual for IBM Kanji Systems, N:GC18-0785, IBM Japan Ltd., 1986 (in Japanese).
12. "ACCESS," IBM Japan 50th Anniversary Chronicles in Publication, Figures 5-9, IBM Japan Ltd., Apr. 1981, p. 325 (in Japanese).

Index Terms:
Double-Byte Encoding, Kanji, Data Entry, Dot Pattern, Photo Printing, EXPO70
Citation:
Kurt Hensch, Toshiaki Igi, Masumi Iwao, Toru Takeshita, "IBM History of Far Eastern Languages in Computing, Part 2: Initial Efforts for Full Kanji Solutions, Early 1970s," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 27-37, Jan.-March 2005, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2005.10
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