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Biographies
October-December 2004 (vol. 26 no. 4)
pp. 79-91
Richard L. (Rick) Crandall
Larry A. Welke

Editor's Note: The two biographies presented in this issue are part of an ongoing examination of the development of the computer software and services industry, using as a lens the trade association ADAPSO (Association of Data Processing Service Organizations) and the careers of some of its most prominent members. It follows from an article published earlier this year on the origins of ADAPSO in the early 1960s as a trade group for service bureau companies, accompanied with biographies of Bernie Goldstein and Frank Lautenberg (see Annals, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 78-93). This series will conclude in a future issue with a second article exploring the development of ADAPSO during the 1970s, as it expanded its membership within the fledgling software product and timesharing service industries.

1. K. Flamm, Creating the Computer: Government, Industry, and High Technology, Brookings Institution, 1988.
2. S. Levy, Hackers: The Heroes of the Digital Revolution, Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984. One aspect of the Berkeley system was described in L.P. Deutsch and B.W. Lampson, "An Online Editor," Comm. ACM, vol. 10, no. 12, Dec. 1967, pp. 793-799.
3. R.L. Crandall, oral history interview by Paul Ceruzzi, 3 May 2002, Charles Babbage Inst. (CBI).
4. T. Haigh, "Biography: Bernard (Bernie) Goldstein," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 26, no. 1, Jan.-Mar. 2004, pp. 85-90.
5. See "ADAPSO Long-Range Plan, 1985— 89," dated 26 Apr. 1985 with annotation "Final Approved Document" in ADAPSO Records (CBI 172), CBI. Hereafter this collection will be referred to as CBI 172.
6. R. Crandall, personal communication to the author, 17 Nov. 2003.
7. Am. Soc. of Assoc. Executives, "ASAE Evaluation Report for ADAPSO, The Computer Software and Services Association," 1988, ADAPSO Records (CBI 172), CBI.
8. Assoc. of Data Processing Service Organizations, board meeting minutes, 28 Oct. 1963, CBI 172, discusses its establishment. Assoc. of Data Processing Service Organizations, incoming board meeting minutes, 26 May, 1966, CBI 172, discusses its abandonment.
9. R.L. Crandall, "ADAPSO: Past, Present, Future" (presented at ADAPSO: 25 Years of Leadership), 1986, ADAPSO Records (CBI 172), CBI. Imlay and John Maguire of Software A.G. were longtime chairs of committees in the Image area, continuing to serve into the late 1980s.
10. This description is taken from the masthead of ADAPSO Update, copies of which are preserved in the CBI 172 ADAPSO collection.
11. This testimony was given on 2 Apr. 1981. Crandall made similar points in R.L. Crandall, "Trade Barriers to Foreign Expansion by U.S. Computer Service Firms," presented at the Computer Law Association's Program on International Free Trade— The Computer Industry, 9 Oct. 1979, ADAPSO Records (CBI 172), CBI.
12. L. Johnson, "Industry Image," ADAPSO Reunion Transcript, May 2–4, 2002, iBusiness Press, 2003, pp. 237-254.
13. Ibid., pp. 77-97.
14. R.L. Crandall and S. Robins, The Incorruptible Cashier: The Formation of an Industry,1876–1890, vol. 1, Vestal Press, 1988, and R.L. Crandall and S. Robins, The Incorruptible Cashier: The Brass Era, 1888–1915, vol. 2., Vestal Press, 1996.
1. The information on Welke's career is from L. Welke, oral history interview by Thomas Haigh, 3 May 2002, OH 369, Charles Babbage Inst. (CBI). Information on Welke not otherwise cited is derived from this source.
2. L. Welke, "Founding the ICP Directories," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 24, no. 1, Jan.— Mar. 2002, pp. 85-89.
3. R.V. Head, "The Travails of Software Resources," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 24, no. 1, Jan.–Mar. 2002, pp. 82-85. Banking was an important early source of interest in software packages. Banks were federally regulated and so did pretty much the same things in the same way across the US. In addition, regulation also kept them artificially small, creating a large potential market and making in-house development proportionally more expensive.
4. T. Haigh, "Software in the 1960s as Concept, Service, and Product," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 24, no. 1, Jan.— Mar. 2002, pp. 5-13.
5. L. Welke, "The Origins of Software," Datamation, vol. 26, no. 12, Dec. 1980, pp. 127-130.
6. Assoc. of Data Processing Service Organizations, board meeting minutes, 12— 13 Oct. 1966, ADAPSO Records (CBI 172), CBI. Hereafter, citations to this collection will be shortened to CBI 172.
7. L. Johnson, "ADAPSO Conferences Workshop," ADAPSO Reunion Transcript, May 2–4, 2002, iBusiness Press, 2003, pp. 77-97.
8. J.L. Dreyer, "The ADAPSO Story," Datamation, vol. 16, no. 3, Mar. 1970, pp. 55-58.
9. L. Welke letter to members of the software industry, 1 Nov. 1971, Martin A. Goetz Papers (CBI 159), CBI.
10. Assoc. of Data Processing Service Organizations, minutes of meeting of the retiring board of directors, 20 Oct. 1971, CBI 172, CBI.
11. The characterization of AISC given here is based on various minutes, official documents, and correspondence found in Martin A. Goetz Papers (CBI 159), CBI. The foundation of AISC was reported in "Software Companies Organize," Computerworld, 1968 (clipping available in CBI 159). Its 11 founding members included Walter Bauer of Informatics and representatives of Applied Data Research, Auerbach Associates, Computer Applications International, Planning Research Corporation, and Computer Usage Corporation.
12. Assoc. of Data Processing Service Organizations, meeting of the board of directors minutes, 17 June 1970, CBI 172. The first presidents of AISC were William Wolf and Richard C. Jones.
13. W. Shelton status report to AISC members, 22 Feb. 1972, Martin A. Goetz Papers (CBI 159), CBI.
14. The merger was reported in "ADAPSO/ASIC," ADAPSO News (CBI 172), vol. 2, no. 4, July— Aug. 1972, pp. 5. The figure of 35 members comes from "Software News," ADAPSO News(CBI 172), vol. 4, no. 2, Mar.–Apr. 1974, pp. 9-10.
15. Eight new members are reported as a result of the merger in Assoc. of Data Processing Service Organizations, minutes of meeting of ADAPSO board of directors, 21 June 1972, CBI 172, CBI.
16. L. Welke, "Founding the ICP Directories," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 24, no. 1, 2002, p. 87.
17. Assoc. of Data Processing Service Organizations, minutes of meeting of ADAPSO board of directors, 1 Feb. 1973, CBI 172, CBI.
18. "Software News," ADAPSO News (CBI 172), vol. 4, no. 2, Mar.–Apr. 1974, pp. 9-10.
19. "Larry A. Welke," ICP Interface, special edition, 1981, pp. 34-42.
20. L.A. Welke, The End of Selling As We Know It: An Executive's Guide to Customer Creation, Authorhouse, 2001.

Citation:
Thomas Haigh, "Biographies," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 79-91, Oct.-Dec. 2004, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2004.25
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