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October-December 2004 (vol. 26 no. 4)
pp. 71-73
Origin of the virtual memory concept
Translating Computer and Calculator in common European languages

1. P.J. Denning, "Virtual Memory," Computing Surveys, vol. 2, 1970, pp. 153-189.
2. P.J. Denning, "Origin of Virtual Machines and other Virtualities," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 23, no. 3, July— Sept. 2001, p. 73.
3. T. Kilburn et al., "One-Level Storage System," IRE Trans. Electronic Computers, vol. 11, 1962, pp. 223-245.
4. T. Hirakuri and T. Maruyama, M Series Computer: M 190 Input/Output Control System, Nikkei Electronics, vols. 12-15, 1975, pp. 74-105.
5. E. Jessen, "Die Entwicklung des virtuellen Speichers [The Development of Virtual Memory]," Informatik-Spektrum, vol. 19, no. 4, 1996, pp. 216-219 (in German).
6. F.R. Güntsch, Logischer Entwurf eines digitalen Rechnergerätes mit mehreren asynchron laufenden Trommeln und automatischem Schnellspeicherbetrieb [Logical Design of a Digital Computer with Multiple Asynchronous Rotating Drums and Automatic High Speed Memory Operation], Internal Report, Computing Center of Technische Universität Berlin, 1956, and doctoral dissertation, Technische Universität Berlin, D 83, 1957 (in German).
1. Dizionario Hazon Garzanti Inglese-Italiano Italiano-Inglese, Garzanti, 1966.
2. Cambridge Dizionario Italiano-Inglese Inglese-Italiano, Signorelli, 1985.
3. Vocabolario Italiano della Lingua Parlata, Barbèra, 1893. This gives computista as "colui che esercita l'arte di tener conti e ragioni, e far computi"(someone who practices the skill of bookkeeping and accounting, and performs computations). Examples of calcolatóre and calcolatrice include perìto calcolatóre (expert calculator) and brava calcolatrice (good [woman] calculator). It's plain here that calcolatóre and calcolatricewere only used to refer to a person.
4. Il Nuovo Zingarelli vocabolario della lingua Italiana, Zanichelli, 1983.
5. Enciclopedia Italiana, Treccani, 1949. Appendix III, covering 1949— 1960, gives details on the early digital computer under "Calcolatrici, Macchine," subheading "Calcolatrici Elettroniche Digitali," but Appendix IV, covering 1960— 1978, treats the same subject under the main entry of "Elaboratori Elettronici." In this text, bothcalcolatoreandcalcolatriceare used for the digital computer. It is worth noting that Olivetti's first working computer prototype of 1957 was called the ELEA9003 for Elaboratore Elettronico Automatico; and Pisa University's early experimental machine was called Calcolatrice Elettronica Pisana. Nowadays calcolatrice is used only to refer to a calculator.
6. The Williams Spanish & English Dictionary, Nelson & Sons, 1963.
7. Collins Spanish-English English-Spanish Dictionary, Collins, 1971.
8. Collins Spanish-English English-Spanish Dictionary, Collins/Harper & Row, 1988.
9. Diccionario Para La Enseñanza de la Lengua Española, Bibliogrf, 1995. This gives computador as "Máquina capaz de trater información automáticamente mediante operaciones matemáticas y lógicas realizadas con mucha rapidez y controlades por programas informáticos" (A machine capable of processing information automatically by means of fast mathematical and logical operations, and controlled by a computer program). Ordenadoris also used for computer, the machine, as inordenador personal(personal computer) orordenador central(mainframe computer). Computer language is lenguaje de ordenador.
10. The Oxford-Duden Pictorial Spanish and English Dictionary, Clarendon Press, 1995.
11. Harrap's Standard French and English Dictionary, Harrap, 1955. This does not give the entry ordinateur. The computers that the French organization SEA (Société d'Electronique et d'Automatisme) built in the 1950s came under the generic name of CAB which stands for Calculatrice Arithmetique Binaire.
12. Le Petit Larousse Illustré, 1994, Librairie Larousse, 1994. This book gives calculateur as "machine de traitement de l'information susceptible d'effectuer automatiquement des opérations numériques, logiques, ou analogiques" (a machine that processes information and is capable of performing numerical, logical, or analog calculations. Calculatrice is given as "machine qui effectue des opérations numériques" (a machine for performing numerical calculations).
13. Grand Larousse Encyclopédique, Librairie Larousse, 1963. This book dedicates a small section to the digital computer under the entry Ordinateur.
14. Harrap's New Standard French and English Dictionary, Harrap, 1980.
15. Nouveau Larousse Classique, Librairie Larousse, 1957. This does not give the entry ordinateur. In this book, calculateur and calculatrice are given as "qui sait calculer," as in un calculateur habile (an able calculator) and machine à calculer (a calculating machine).
16. Cassell's German and English Dictionary, Cassell, 1966.
17. Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, Brockhaus, 1972. Although the digital computer has been known by various names in Germany, the Germans were probably among the first non-US nations to adopt the word computer as part of their common vocabulary. For example, this encyclopeida lists computer as a main entry, although the reader is referred to the entry under "Rechenanlage" for a full description.
18. Die Grosse Bertelsmann Lexikothek, Bertelsmann, 1984.
19. Langenscheidt's Taschen-Wörterbuch Englisch, Langenscheidt, 1990. An example of the use of "Rechenautomat" is the University of Darmstadt's 1959 machine that was called the Darmstädter elektronische Rechenautomat, or DERA.
20. Collins German-English, English-German Dictionary, Harrap, 1993.
21. Langenscheidt's Concise German Dictionary, Hodder and Stoughton, 1973.

Laurie Robertson, "Anecdotes," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 71-73, Oct.-Dec. 2004, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2004.22
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