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The Circulation of Knowledge, Institutional Ecologies, and the History of Computing
July-September 2004 (vol. 26 no. 3)
pp. 88, 86-87
Atsushi Akera, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

1. I. Hacking, Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1983.
2. P. Galison, Image and Logic: A Material Culture of Microphysics, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1997. Galison advances the notion of intercalation to describe the general sense of continuity that prevails in the sciences, even though there are broadly recognized discontinuities in the theories, instrumental traditions, and skilled practices of science.
3. C. Rosenberg, "Toward an Ecology of Knowledge: On Discipline, Context, and History," No Other Gods: On Science and American Social Thought, revised ed., Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1997, pp. 225-239.
4. J. Golinski, Making Natural Knowledge: Constructivism and the History of Science, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998.
5. S. Star ed. Ecologies of Knowledge: Work and Politics in Science and Technology, State Univ. of New York Press, 1995.
6. A. Akera, "Constructing a Representation for an Ecology of Knowledge: Methodological Advances in the Integration of Knowledge and its Social Context," (unpublished manuscript, under review withSocial Studies of Science).
7. A. Akera, "What Is 'Social' About Social Construction? The Structure of Meanings and Their Associated Practices in Constructivist Accounts of Technology," (unpublished manuscript, under review withSocial Epistemology).
8. C.E. Hughes, "Ecological Aspects of Institutions," The Sociological Eye, Aldine, 1971, pp. 5-13.
9. S. Star and J. Griesemer, "Institutional Ecology, 'Translations' and Boundary Objects: Amateurs and Professionals in Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 1907-1939," Social Studies of Science, vol. 19, 1989, pp. 387-420.
10. The von Neumann architecture has persisted for decades. Yet computer scientists would probably be among the first to admit that this architecture might not have been the most efficient design for all applications. Historians would suggest that it was the consensus around a single design, built primarily around a single, fast central processor, that facilitated the industrial investments and commitments necessary for immense improvements to computer systems, largely through advances in circuit speed and density. Restated in philosophical language, the phenomenon of the von Neumann architecture suggests that the basic design of computer systems was governed through a process that was both contingent and indeterminate. Computers offer an enticing subject with which to study these phenomena.
11. S.W. Leslie, The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford, Columbia Univ. Press, 1993.

Citation:
Atsushi Akera, "The Circulation of Knowledge, Institutional Ecologies, and the History of Computing," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 88, 86-87, July-Sept. 2004, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2004.18
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