Dating from the first international conference on the topic in October 1968, software engineering just turned 35. It has all the hallmarks of an established discipline: societies (or subsocieties), journals, textbooks and curricula, even research institutes.
• Phase 1 (formulating the specification) ends with a precise external specification of the artifact to be made, as seen from the user's or client's viewpoint.
• Phase 2 (design) ends with a much more detailed specification of what is to be built.
• Phase 3 (construction and manufacturing) ends with the constructed artifact.