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Issue No.03 - July-September (2002 vol.24)
pp: 56-74
ABSTRACT
<p>In the late 1950s the Ford Foundation hoped that its library organization, the Council on Library Resources, would use its monies to sponsor a permanent library high-tech laboratory. After several years, Ford's techno-visions became tied to the hopes of MIT to enter the information field. Unfortunately, MIT's Project Intrex ended without meeting its sponsors' expectations.</p>
CITATION
Colin Burke, "The Ford Foundation's Search for an American Library Laboratory", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.24, no. 3, pp. 56-74, July-September 2002, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2002.1024762
REFERENCES
1. R. Magot, The Ford Foundation at Work: Philanthropic Choices, Methods and Styles, Plenum Press, New York, 1979. Also, D. Macdonald,The Ford Foundation: The Men and the Millions,Transaction, New Brunswick, N.J., 1989, pp. ix-xv.
2. Throughout this article, when dollar figures for the 1950s-1970s were converted to year 2000 dollars, I used a multiplier of 5.66. This average for the constant dollar calculations was based on the inflation figures presented at:http://minneapolisfed.org/economy/calchist1913.html , which uses the Federal Reserve Bank's historical inflation/constant dollar estimates.
3. Gen'l correspondence, reel 4059, 560-0219, 1962, 6, Ford Foundation Archives, New York, microfilm.
4. Intrex news releases, Intrex Archival Materials, Dec. 1958, Council on Library Resources Archive, Washington, D.C. Also, gen'l correspondence, reel 4059, "Special Programs," Council on Library Resources Inc., 560-0129, 3 Nov. 1960, Ford Foundation Archives, microfilm.
5. V. Clapp, "Council on Library Resources, Inc.," Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, vol. 6, A. Kent, H. Lancour, and W. Nsari, eds., M. Dekker, New York, 1971, pp. 219-227.
6. "Background Data on the Formation of the Council on Library Resources, Inc.," 18 Sept. 1956, CLR. Also, I.S. Farkas-Conn, From Documentation to Information Science, Greenwood Press, New York, 1990.
7. Annual reports and special reports, 1956, CLR Archive. Clapp was a leader in reforming science information systems, but, as head of the council, he urged policies to help all types of research libraries.
8. Annual reports and special reports, 1956 and Sept. 1993, archival materials; news releases, Dec. 1958; CLR Archive.
9. Annual reports and special reports, Mar. 1958, CLR Archive.
10. L.R. Ridenour, Bibliography in the Age of Science, 2nd ed., Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana, Ill., 1952. Also, S-F. Su, "Dialogue with an OPAC: How Visionary was Swanson in 1964?" Library Quarterly, vol. 64, no. 2, Apr. 1994, pp. 130-161.
11. V. Clapp, The Future of the Research Library, Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana, Ill., 1964. Also, V. Clapp, "Foreword," in J.C.R. Licklider, Libraries of the Future, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964. Also, annual reports and special reports, CLR, passim.
12. Avco, Technical Investigation of Elements of A Mechanized Library System, (Final Report No. EW-6680), Avco, Cincinnati, Ohio, 11 Jan. 1960. Also, R.L. Waring, Technical Investigations of Addition of Hardcopy Output to the Elements of a Mechanized Library System, (final report), Avco, Cincinnati, Ohio,20 Sept. 1961.
13. W. Weaver and C.E. Shannon, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana, Ill.,1962. Also, "Special Programs,"4 Oct. 1960, gen'l correspondence, reel 4059, 560-0219, Ford Foundation Archives, microfilm.
14. "Special Programs," Oct. 1959 and 3 Nov. 1960, gen'l correspondence, reel 4059, Ford Foundation Archives. Also, Lowry to Stratton, 17 Dec. 1965, group 22, box 2, series 1, folder 24, Heald Collection, Ford Foundation Archives.
15. To Chapman, 27 Dec. 1960, reel 4047, log file 560-0219, Ford Foundation Archives, microfilm.
16. V. Clapp, "Foreword," in J.C.R. Licklider, Libraries of the Future, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1965, fifth printing, 1971. Also, Piore and King, gen'l correspondence, 1960, reel 4059, 560-0219-196, Ford Foundation Archives, microfilm.
17. K.L. Wildes and N.A. Lindgren, A Century of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1882-1982.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985, p. 348. Project MAC had wider aims, captured in the alternative version of the acronym, Machine-Aided Cognition, for which see, e.g., Norberg and O'Neill, Transforming Computer Technology, and P.N. Edwards, The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996.
18. Research on Concepts and Problems of Libraries of the Future: Final Report, Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Cambridge, Mass.,30 Nov. 1963.
19. J.A.N. Lee, Computer Pioneers. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif.: 1995, pp. 328-334,
20. J.F. Reintjes, Numerical Control: Making A New Technology, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1991. Also, K.L. Wildes and N.A. Lindgren,A Century of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1882-1982,MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1985, pp. 210-227 and 345-353. Also, "Project MAC Interviews" and "Biographies of Participants and Authors,"Annals of the History of Computing,vol. 14, no. 2, Apr.-June 1992.
21. A. Kent and H. Lancour eds. "Massachusetts Institute of Technology Libraries," , Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, vol. 17, M. Dekker, New York, pp. 239-252. Also, E.B. Stanford, "Federal Aid for Academic Library Construction: A Retrospective Review of the Higher Education Facilities Act of 1963,"Library J.,vol. 99, no. 2, 15 Jan. 1974, pp. 112-115.
22. "1956, Endicott House (Locke) Information Conference, List of Attendees," Jesse Shera Papers, "Activities," box 29, Case Western Reserve Univ. Archives, Cleveland, Ohio.
23. A. Kent and H. Lancourm eds. "The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Libraries," , Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, vol. 17, M. Dekker, New York, 1973, pp. 239-256.
24. M.M. Kessler MIT Technical Information Program, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, "Lincoln Laboratory: An Experimental Communication Center for Scientific and Technical Information," 31 Mar. 1960. Also, E. Garfield, B. Cronin, and H.B. Atkins, The Web of Knowledge: A Festschrift in Honor of Eugene Garfield, Information Today, Medford, N.J., 2000, and E. Garfield et. al.,The Use of Citation Data in Writing the History of Science,Inst. for Scientific Information, Philadelphia, 1964.
25. "Project Minerva,"27 Dec. 1963, AC47, box 32, MIT Archives, Cambridge, Mass.
26. A.L. Norberg and J.E. O'Neill, Transforming Computer Technology: Information Processing for the Pentagon, 1962-1986, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1996.
27. Research on Concepts and Problems of Libraries of the Future: Final Report, Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Cambridge, Mass.,30 Nov. 1963.
28. J.C.R. Licklider, The Library of the Future, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1965.
29. "Resources of the Research Library" (discussion paper), 10 Dec. 1964, Report #002925, Humanities and the Arts Program, Ford Foundation Archives, p.18.
30. G.W. King et al., Automation and the Library of Congress: A Survey Sponsored by the Council on Library Resources, Inc., Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 1963.
31. See Ref. 29, p. 19. Also, Lowry to Stratton, 17 Dec. 1965, box 2, series 1, folder 24, Heald Collection, Ford Foundation Archives.
32. Special issue on "Time Sharing at MIT," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 14, no. 1, Jan.-Mar. 1992, pp. 14-32.
33. E.C. Freeman ed. MIT Lincoln Laboratory: Technology in the Nation's Interest, Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Mass., 1995, p. xv.
34. Intrex news releases, 1964-1965, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
35. "by Elizabeth Yeates" (partial draft of proposed book/article), AC47, box 37, MIT Archives.
36. Intrex news releases, 16 Jan. 1964, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive. Also, MIT Ann. Report, 1964; Locke to Overhage, 17 Dec. 1965; and Locke to Overhage, 12 Feb. 1967, AC47, box 33, MIT Archives.
37. "Project Minerva,"27 Dec. 1963, AC47, box 32, and "by Elizabeth Yeates," AC47, box 37, MIT Archives. Also, Lowry to Overhage, 12 May 1965, log file, L242, L67-109, reel 4059, 8 Aug. 1967, p. 5, Ford Foundation Archives, microfilm; R.M. Hayes, ed.,Mechanized Information Retrieval in the University Library,Inst. of Library Research, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, 1967, p. 71; and N.D. Stevens, "Research Libraries: Past, Present, and Future,"Advances in Librarianship,vol. 17, Academic Press, New York, 1993, p. 92.
38. Annual reports and special reports, 1964-1965, CLR Archive. Also, Lowry to Overhage,12 May 1965, log file l242, 167-109, main reel, Ford Foundation Archives, microfilm.
39. Intrex news releases, 16 Jan. 1964, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive, and, MIT Ann. Report, 1964.
40. Correspondence, 6 Nov. 1964, Intrex Archival Materials; Intrex proposals and reports, 27 Oct. 1964; CLR Archive.
41. Intrex proposals and reports, 27 Oct. 1964, CLR Archive. In terms of year 2000 dollars, he was seeking $35,000,000.
42. Intrex proposals and reports, 27 Oct. 1964, CLR Archive. Also, Locke to Floe, 27 Apr. 1966, and, NNN to WNL, 21 Apr. 1966, AC47, box 33, MIT Archives. Also, Proc. Conf. Research Library, Daedalus, Boston, 1966.
43. Intrex proposals and reports, 20 Mar. 1968, CLR Archive. The substantial contribution by the Independence Foundation may be explained by its connection to the Central Intelligence Agency, which was very interested in improving data systems. See N. Baker,Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper,Random House, New York, 2001, p. 93.
44. C.F. Overhage and R.J. Harmon eds. Intrex: Report of a Planning Conference on Information Transfer Experiments, MIT Press , Cambridge, Mass., 1965. Also, G. King, review of Intrex, inOperations Research, Sept.-Oct. 1966, box 1, MIT Archives.
45. , Memorandum by Locke to Academic Council, AC47, box 32, MIT Archives.
46. Record of interview, FA and Verner Clapp, 19 Jan. 1965, Carnegie Corporation Collection, Columbia Univ. Archives, New York.
47. Memorandum of agreement between Project Intrex and the libraries, 20 Jan. 1965, AC47, MIT Archives.
48. Kessler to Locke, 22 Oct. 1965, AC47, box 33; Brown to Wiesner, 16 July 1968, AC47, box 37; "by Elizabeth Yeates," AC47, box 37; Nicholson to Yeates, 4 Feb. 1974, AC47, box 33; G. Brown to Locke, 19 Nov. 1965, AC47, box 37; untitled document on the library, 25 Aug. 1966, AC47, box 33; and, Nicholson to Floe, 15 Feb. 1966, AC47, box 33, all in MIT Archives.
49. Locke to Academic Council, 21 Sept. 1965, AC47, box 32, MIT Archives.
50. W.N. Locke, "Computer Costs for Large Libraries," Datamation, vol. 16, no. 2, Feb. 1970, pp. 69-74.
51. C.F. Overhage and R.J. Harmon eds. Intrex: Report of a Planning Conference on Information Transfer Experiments, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1965. Also, Locke to Academic Council, 21 Sept. 1965, AC47, box 32, MIT Archives.
52. C.F. Overhage, and R.J. Harmon eds. Intrex: Report of a Planning Conference on Information Transfer Experiments, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1965, p. 215.
53. Locke was highly critical of the Woods Hole conference recommendations, as were some other librarians. Locke to Academic Council, 21 Sept. 1965, AC47, box 32, MIT Archives.
54. S.B. Lage, and R.S. Marcus, A Cataloging Manual For a News Retrieval System, Project Intrex,Cambridge, Mass., 1968. Also, K. Janda and D. Gordon, "Microfilm Information Machines for Newspaper Libraries," Special Libraries, vol. 61, no. 1, Jan. 1970, pp. 33-47.
55. C.F. Overhage and J.F. Reintjes, "Project Intrex: A General Review," Information Storage and Retrieval, vol. 10, nos. 5-6, May-June 1974, pp. 157-188.
56. Locke to Overhage, 1 June 1966, and Overhage to Locke, 19 Feb. 1967, AC47, box 37, MIT Archives.
57. Communications with MIT professor Richard Marcus, 2001 (concerning the term "unscalable"). Also, correspondence, 1966, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive; and M.B. Henderson, ed., Interactive Bibliographic Systems: Proc. Forum Held at Gaithersburg, Maryland, 4-5 Oct. 1971, US Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.C., Apr. 1973.
58. J.F. Reintjes, Numerical Control: Making A New Technology, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1991. Also, K.L. Wildes and N.A. Lindgren,A Century of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1882-1982,MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1985, pp. 210-227 and 345-353. Also, "Project MAC Interviews" and "Biographies of Participants and Authors,"Annals of the History of Computing,vol. 14, no. 2, Apr.-June 1992.
59. J.T. McNaney, "Consolidated Vultee Charactron CRT System," presented at IRE Nat'l Convention, 1952.
60. "Dean Gordon Brown's recommendation," minutes of the Committee on Information Transfer Experiments meeting, 19 Apr. 1966, AC47, box 33, MIT Archives.
61. Correspondence, Mar. 1966, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
62. Correspondence, 1966, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
63. Minutes of the meeting of the Committee on Information Transfer Experiments, 19 Apr. 1966, AC47, box 33; "by Elizabeth Yeates," box 37; MIT Archives.
64. Annual reports and special reports, 28 Nov. 1966, CLR Archive.
65. Intrex proposals and reports, 12 Dec. 1966, CLR Archive.
66. Committee on Scientific and Tech. Communication of the Nat'l Academy of Sciences—Nat'l Academy of Eng., Scientific and Technical Communication: A Pressing National Problem and Recommendations For Its Solution, Nat'l Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1969. Also, F. Kilgour, "History of Library Computerization,"J. Library Automation, vol. 3, Sept. 1970, pp. 218-229.
67. Annual reports and special reports, June-Nov. 1966, and "Proposal from MIT," Intrex, 20 May 1968, CLR Archive. Also, Floe to Lowry, 19 June 1967, reel 0242 PJC l67-109, Ford Foundation Archives, microfilm.
68. Gen'l correspondence on model libraries, 8 Aug. 1967, p. 5, reel 4059, 560-0219, Ford Foundation Archives, microfilm.
69. R.K. Summit, "DIALOG: An Operational On-Line Reference Retrieval System," Proc. ACM, ACM Press, New York, 1967, pp. 51-56; also, C.A. Cuadra, ed.,Ann. Rev. Information Science and Technology, vol. 4, Encyclopedia Britannica, Chicago, 1969; C.J. Austin,MEDLARS: 1963-1967,Nat'l Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 1968; J. Becker and J.S. Pulsifer, eds.,Application of Computer Technology to Library Processes: A Syllabus,Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, N.J., 1973; G.B. Bernstein,A Fifteen-Year Forecast of Information Processing Technology,Management Information Services, Detroit, 1969; D.M. Knight and E.S. Nourse, eds.,Libraries at Large: Tradition, Innovation and the National Interest,R.R. Bowker, New York, 1969; and J.A. Speer, compiler,Libraries and Automation: A Bibliography with Index,Teachers College Press, Emporia, Kan., 1967.
70. Intrex news releases, 1 Feb. 1967, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive; also, D.C. Burnham, "Microfilm as Computer Memory," Proc. 18th Ann. Meeting and Convention, Nat'l Microfilm Assoc., Annapolis, Md., 1969, pp. 185-191.
71. Correspondence, 15 Apr. 1968, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
72. J.F. Reintjes, Numerical Control: Making A New Technology, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1991. Also, K.L. Wildes and N.A. Lindgren,A Century of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1882-1982,MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1985, pp. 210-227 and 345-353. Also, "Project MAC Interviews" and "Biographies of Participants and Authors,"Annals of the History of Computing,vol. 14, no. 2, Apr.-June 1992.
73. Intrex proposals and reports, Sept. 1967, CLR Archive.
74. A.R. Benenfeld, Generation and Encoding of the Project Intrex Augmented Catalog Data Base (ESL-R-360), MIT, Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 1968.
75. Intrex proposals and reports, Sept. 1968, CLR Archive.
76. M.F. Tauber and E. Wise, "On Indexing and Worries about Semantic Chaos," Classification Systems, R.R. Shaw, ed., vol. 1, part 3, Graduate School of Library Service, State Univ., New Brunswick, N.J., 1961.
77. B.K. Dennis, "Five Operational Years of Inverted Index Manipulation and Abstract Retrieval by an Electronic Computer," J. Chemical Documentation, vol. 2, no. 4, Nov. 1962, pp. 234-242. Also, W. Hoffmann, ed.,Digital Information Processors: Selected Articles on Problems of Information Processing,Interscience, New York, 1962.
78. Minutes of meeting no. 3, 25 Mar. 1968, Intrex Study Committee, CLR Archive; "Intrex" (proposal from MIT), 20 May 1968, CLR Archive.
79. Intrex proposals and reports, 29 Feb. 1968, CLR Archive.
80. Correspondence, 2 Feb. 1968, Mar. 1968, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
81. Intrex proposals and reports, 31 May 1968, CLR Archive.
82. Intrex proposals and reports, 2 Feb. 1968, CLR Archive.
83. Correspondence, 21 Feb. 1968, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
84. Spaulding to Cole, 4 Mar. 1968, and proposals and reports, 25 Mar. 1968, CLR Archive.
85. Correspondence, Mar. 1968, and Intrex news releases, 16 Jan. 1964, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
86. Spaulding to Cole, 4 Mar. 1968, correspondence, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
87. Intrex proposals and reports, 25 Mar. 1968, CLR Archive.
88. D.R. Knudsen et al., "Experimental Evaluation of the Resolution Capabilities of Image Transmission Systems," Information Display, vol. 5, 1968, pp. 31-68; also, annual reports and special reports, 2 Sept. 1969, CLR Archive.
89. Intrex proposals and reports, 15 Mar. 1968, CLR Archive.
90. E. Caruso, "Intrex Project," Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, vol. 12, A. Kent, H. Lancour, and J. Daily, eds., M. Dekker, New York, 1974, pp. 481-501. Also, A.R. Benenfeld,Generation and Encoding,p. 47.
91. Intrex proposals and reports, 15 Sept. 1968, CLR Archive.
92. D.R. Haring and J.K. Boberge, "A Combined Display for Computer Generated Data and Scanned Photographic Images," AFIPS—Conf. and Proc., vol. 34, AFIPS Press, Montvale, N.J., 1969, pp. 483-490.
93. Intrex proposals and reports, 15 Apr. and 15 Sept. 1968, CLR Archive.
94. Correspondence, 3 May 1968, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
95. Correspondence, circa May 1968, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
96. Intrex news releases, 28 Nov. 1966, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
97. "Intrex" (proposal from MIT), 20 May 1968; correspondence, 24 Mar. 1972 and 3 Oct. 1968, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
98. Minutes of Intrex Advisory Committee Executive Session, 17 Mar. 1970; reports, 13 June 1968, CLR Archive. Unfortunately, the NSF did not retain its files on Intrex, and the exact amounts of the second and third NSF grants to Intrex are unknown. However, they seem to have been appreciable.
99. Correspondence, 2 Sept. 1969 and 9 Oct. 1969, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
100. Correspondence, 10 June 1970, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
101. Compton to Spaulding, 13 Mar. 1970, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive. W. Dale Compton was a leading industrial systems expert and would soon become a major figure in the nation's engineering and science organizations. For a brief biography, seehttp://www.asme.org/pi/pr/honors/99Merchant.html .
102. Correspondence, 3 Mar. 1970 and 5 May 1970, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
103. Intrex proposals and reports, 17 Mar. 1970, CLR Archive.
104. "Automation" (proposal to Ford Foundation), 1970, p. 60, reel 4047, 560-0219, Ford Foundation Archives, microfilm.
105. Intrex proposals and reports, 15 Mar. 1970, CLR Archive.
106. Intrex proposals and reports, 1971, CLR Archive.
107. Intrex proposals and reports, 30 May 1972, CLR Archive.
108. E. Caruso, "Intrex Project," Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, vol. 12, A. Kent, H. Lancour, and J. Daily, eds., M. Dekker, New York, 1974, p. 486.
109. Correspondence, Aug.-Sept. 1970, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
110. Correspondence, Aug.-Sept. 1970 and 6 Nov. 1970, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
111. Correspondence, 15 Dec. 1970, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
112. W.N. Locke, "Computer Costs for Large Libraries," Datamation, vol. 16, 1970, pp. 69-74. Also, J.A. Raffel and R. Shishko,Systematic Analysis of University Libraries: An Application of Cost-Benefit Analysis to the M.I.T. Libraries,MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1970, and N.D. Stevens, "Research Libraries: Past, Present, and Future,"Advances in Librarianship,vol. 17, Academic Press, New York, 1993, p. 92. In terms of year 2000 dollars, a conservative estimate of the funds received by Intrex (including the grant to Licklider and BBN) from non-MIT sources is $30,000,000.
113. Correspondence, 5 May 1971, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
114. Intrex proposals and reports, 1971, CLR Archive. Also, C.E. Hurlburt, M.K. Molnar, and C.W. Therrien, The Intrex Retrieval System Software (Report ESL-R-458), Dept. of Electrical Eng., MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 15 Sept. 1971, p. 541; and Intrex proposals and reports, 9 Nov. 1971, CLR Archive.
115. Intrex proposals and reports, 9 Nov. 1971, CLR Archive. Also, C.W. Therrien and J.F. Reintjes, "Modeling of Information Systems," Council on Library Resources, Washington, D.C., circa 1972; and annual reports and special reports, 30 May 1972, CLR Archive.
116. Correspondence, 24 Mar. 1972, Intrex Archival Materials, CLR Archive.
117. T.B. Hahn and C. Bourne draft copy of The History of On-line Systems., Also, MIT annual reports for 1974 and 1975, Eng. Library, MIT, Cambridge, Mass.
118. Report of the Independent Evaluation and Proposal by the Council on Library Resources for Renewed Support, Dec. 1973, Ford Foundation Archives. Also, W. Aspray, "Command and Control, Documentation, and Library Science: The Origins of Information Science at the University of Pittsburgh," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 42, no. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1991, pp. 4-19.
119. Council on Library Resources, The Council on Library Resources: Shaping a Foundation for the Future, (brochure), CLR, Washington, D.C., circa 1993. Also, "OCLC" (report of CLR), 1976, reel 4058, Ford Foundation Archives, microfilm.
120. C.F.J. Overhage and J.F. Reintjes, "Project Intrex: A General Review," Information Storage and Retrieval, vol. 10, nos. 5-6, May-June 1974, p. 1257.
121. NEBHE [New England Board for Higher Education]Developments, 1973, AC47, box 32; and Nicholson to Yeates, 4 Feb. 1974, AC47, box 33; MIT Archives.
122. R.S. Marcus, P. Kugel, and A.R. Benenfeld, "Catalog Information and Text as Indicators of Relevance," J. Am. Soc. Information Science (JASIS), vol. 29, 1978, pp. 15-30.
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