Issue No.03 - July-September (2002 vol.24)
pp: 2-13
<p>For the past 45 years, the free-spirited, sometimes colorful Council on Library Resources (now the Council on Library and Information Resources) has played a major role in helping libraries automate. This is the story of how a small band of foundation-financed promoters contributed instrumentally to the networked bibliographic services of today's libraries and to the achievements of digital-library pioneers.</p>
Deanna B. Marcum, "Automating the Library: The Council on Library Resources", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.24, no. 3, pp. 2-13, July-September 2002, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2002.1024758
1. Personal conversation with Fred Wagman, director emeritus of the University of Michigan Libraries, Nov. 1988. The quotation along with much else about CLR's founding appears in D.B. Marcum, "Reclaiming the Research Library: The Founding of the Council on Library Resources," Libraries&Culture, A Journal of Library History, vol. 31, no. 1, Winter 1996, pp. 113-124. Overviews of the Council's history may be found also in these publications: R. Gurwitt, The Council on Library Resources, Shaping a Foundation for the Future (special insert in CLR's 37th annual report), Washington, D.C., 1993; V.W. Clapp, "Ten Years, 1956-1966,"10th Ann. Report,CLR, Washington, D.C., 1966, pp. 9-31; Council on Library Resources, "The First Fifteen Years,"20th Ann. Report,CLR, Washington, D.C., pp. 9-21; and J. Rosenberg, "Council on Library Resources, Inc.,"Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science,Marcel Dekker, New York, vol. 39, supplement 4, 1985, pp. 86-98.
2. Wright to Fred Cole, 14 Oct. 1954, Louis B. Wright Papers, Gelman Library Special Collections, George Washington Univ., Washington, D.C.
3. M. Boaz, "1956 Revisited," Library J., vol. 82, 1957, pp. 488-489; also, R. Gurwitt,The Council on Library Resources,p.5;20th Ann. Report,CLR, p. 9.
4. W.E. Wright ed. Am. Library Ann. for 1956-1957, R.R. Bowker, New York, 1957, pp. 68-69.
5. D. Lacy, "Books and the Future: A Speculation," Library J., vol. 81, 1956, pp. 2278-2279.
6. 20th Ann. Report, CLR, Washington, D.C., 1976, p. 10.
7. Ibid., p. 9.
8. Typescript of Wright's introductory remarks at the Folger Library, 15 Jan. 1955.
9. D. Marcum, "Reclaiming the Research Library," p. 116.
10. B. Milum, "Eisenhower, ALA, and the Selection of Quincy Mumford," Libraries&Culture, vol. 30, no. 1, Winter 1995, pp. 26-56.
11. 1st Ann. Report, CLR, Washington, D.C., 1957, p. 5.
12. Summary of discussion, meeting of advisory panel to review CLR program, Cosmos Club, Washington, D.C.,28 May 1958.
13. Ibid., p. 13.
14. 20th Ann. Report, CLR, pp. 14-15.
15. V. Clapp, "Ten Years, 1956-1966," 10th Ann. Report, p. 12.
16. Cummings is quoted in R. Gurwitt, The Council on Library Resources, p. 5.
17. L.A. Schultheiss, D.S. Culbertson, and E.M. Heiliger, Advanced Data Processing in the University Library, Scarecrow Press, New York, 1962.
18. G.W. King et al., Automation and the Library of Congress, a survey sponsored by CLR, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 1963.
19. 10th Ann. Report, CLR, p. 17.
20. V. Clapp, "Ten Years," 10th Ann. Report, p. 17.
21. 6th Ann. Report, CLR, 1962, p. 11.
22. J.C.R. Licklider, Libraries of the Future, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1965. The latter-day critic is C. Burke, "Librarians Go High-Tech, Perhaps: The Ford Foundation, the CLR and INTREX," Libraries&Culture,vol. 31, no. 1, Winter 1996, pp. 123-129.
23. 20th Ann. Report, CLR, p. 21.
24. A.L. Hallstein provides a summary of Clapp's entire career in "Clapp, Vernor W.," Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, vol. 39, M. Dekker, New York, 1985, pp. 79-86; memorial tributes are in "Verner W. Clapp 1901-1972,"16th Ann. Report,CLR, 1972, p. 51.
25. Council on Library Resources, "Fred Carrington Cole, 1912-1986," 30th Ann. Report, CLR, Washington, D.C., 1986, p. 7.
26. 20th Ann. Report, CLR, p. 18.
27. On both the significance and the limitations of MARC, see D.V. Pitti, "Encoded Archival Description: The Development of an Encoding Standard for Archival Finding Aids," Am. Archival Studies: Readings in Theory and Practice, R.C. Jimerson, ed., Soc. of Am. Archivists, Chicago, 2000, p. 402.
28. 20th Ann. Report, CLR, p. 19.
29. Recon Working Task Force, National Aspects of Creating and Using MARC/RECON Records, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 1973; and H.D. Avram, MARC, Its History and Implications, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 1975.
30. 20th Ann. Report, CLR, p. 20.
31. Ibid., p. 21.
32. C. Burke, "Librarians Go High-Tech," p. 128.
33. 20th Ann. Report, CLR, p. 21.
34. 14th Ann. Report, CLR, 1970, pp. 17-18.
35. Ibid, p. 18.
36. 20th Ann. Report, CLR, p. 7.
37. Council on Library Resources, "The Year 1978-1979 and the Future," 23rd Ann. Report, CLR, Washington, D.C., 1979, p. 10.
38. 30th Ann. Report, CLR, p. 14.
39. Ibid., p. 15.
40. Ibid., p. 20.
41. Commission on Preservation and Access, Annual Report, July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995, CPA, Washington, D.C., 1995, p. 3; also, Council on Library and Information Resources,Ann. Report 1996-1997,CLIR, Washington, D.C., 1997, pp. 1-2.
42. Digital Library Federation, Ann. Report 1998-1999, CLIR, Washington, D.C., 1999, p. 1.
43. Activities referred to include the DLF's involvement in the Open Archives Initiative, the Academic Image Cooperative, ArtSTOR, the Mellon E-Journal Preservation Program, and TEI text encoding. More information on these and related projects, including summaries of all major DLF initiatives, is available athttp:/
44. J. George, "From the Closet to the Center: Digital Libraries Enter a New Phase," CLIR Issues, no. 22,, July/Aug. 2001, pp. 2-3.