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The Beginning of Automation in the University of Toronto Library, 1963-1972
April-June 2002 (vol. 24 no. 2)
pp. 50-70

In 1962, the Province of Ontario established five new universities and asked the University of Toronto Library (UTL) to help build libraries for them, which it did. The main task was determining a record format, coordinated with that developed later for the Library of Congress's MARC project. Eventually, UTL established University of Toronto Library Automation Systems (UTLAS), operated first as an independent agency and later sold.

1. R.H. Blackburn, Evolution of the Heart: A History of the University of Toronto Library Up To 1981, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1989.
2. M.R. Williams, "UTEC and Ferut: the University of Toronto Computation Centre," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 16, no. 2, Summer 1994. This was a special issue devoted to computing in Canada and contained five other articles on early Canadian computing, including "Development of Systems Software for the Ferut Computer at the University of Toronto, 1952-1955," by J.N. Patterson Hume, pp. 13-19.
3. C.C. Gotlieb and S. Kumar, "Semantic Clustering of Index Terms," JACM, vol. 15, no. 4, Oct. 1968, pp. 493-513.
4. R. Bregzis, "The ONULP Bibliographic Control System," Proc. 1965 Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing, held at the Illini Union on the Urbana Campus of the University of Illinois, 25-28 Apr. 1965, Univ. of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science, Champaign, Ill., distributed by the Illini Book Store, 1966, p.140.
5. Am. Library Assoc. Book Catalogs Committee, Book Form Catalogs; a listing from questionnaires submitted to the Book Catalogs Directory Sub-Committee, ALA. Status 1968, Nov. 1969.
6. R. Bregzis, "Some Prerequisites to Cooperative Cataloging," College and Research Libraries, vol. 24, no. 6, Nov. 1964, pp. 497-500.
7. Compare with P.M. Sprenkle and F.G. Kilgour, "A Quantitative Study of Characters on Biomedical Catalog Cards—A Preliminary Investigation," American Documentation, vol. 14, July 1963, pp. 202-206. Fixed-length fields were allotted for data categories and elements that by their nature are not likely to vary.
8. "Entry" refers only to the name (personal or corporate), title, or subject term under which a work is entered. "Entry record" refers to the whole record of a work headed by an entry displayed in a catalog.
9. F.G. Kilgour, "Library Catalog Production on Small Computers," American Documentation, vol. 17, no. 3, July 1966, pp. 124-131.
10. On the print chain that normally accommodated five sets of 48 characters, only two sets of 100 characters were usable, each containing the following groups of characters: 26 alphabetical characters in lower case, 26 alphabetical characters in upper case, 10 numerical characters, and 38 special characters and symbols. The cost of this print chain to the University of Toronto Library was $2,007. The modifications of the IBM 1401 necessary to accommodate this chain cost $2,832 in additional rental annually. Other minor modifications were required for the IBM 026 in order to facilitate the preparation of input suitable for the printing with the 100-character chain.
11. R. Bregzis, E. Freeman, and C.C. Gotlieb, "ONULP—The Ontario New Universities Libraries Project," ICC Bull., vol. 5, Int'l Computation Centre, 1966, pp. 99-113; also, E. Freeman, "Ontario New Universities Libraries Project: An Automated Library Cataloging System," presented at the 5th Nat'l Conf., the Computer Soc. of Canada, 29 May-1 June 1966.
12. A.T. Curran and H.D. Avram, The Identification of Data Elements in Bibliographic Records, final report of the special project on data elements for the Subcommittee on Machine Input Records (SC-2) of the Sectional Committee on Library Work and Documentation (Z-39) of the United States of America Standards Institute, May 1967.
13. In 1959 the University of Toronto Library changed its old homegrown classification system to the LC classification and closed the old catalog. A new catalog was started for the currently LC-classified and -reclassified materials.
14. Automation and the Library of Congress, a survey sponsored by the Council on Library Resources Inc., submitted by Gilbert W. King, chairman, et al., Washington, D.C., Library of Congress, 1963.
15. Libraries and Automation, Proc. Conf. Libraries and Automation held at Airlie Foundation, Warrenton, Va., 26-30 May 1963, under sponsorship of the Library of Congress, Nat'l Science Foundation, Council Library Resources Inc., B.E. Markuson, ed., Washington, D.C., Library of Congress, 1964.
16. R.H. Blackburn, Evolution of the Heart: A History of the University of Toronto Library Up To 1981, p. 286.
17. L.F. Buckland, The Recording of Library of Congress Bibliographic Data in Machine Form, Council on Library Resources, Washington, D.C., 1965.
18. R. Bregzis, "University of Toronto [MARC Pilot Project Report]." The MARC Pilot Project, final report on a project sponsored by the Council on Library Resources. Prepared by H.D. Avram, project director. Information Systems Office, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 1968, pp. 143-148.
19. U.S. Library of Congress, The MARC II Format, a communications format for bibliographic data, prepared by H.D. Avram et al., Information Systems Office, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 1968.
20. C.N. Mooers, "TRAC, a Procedure-Describing Language for the Reactive Typewriter," paper presented at the ACM Programming Languages and Pragmatics Conf., San Dimas, Calif., Aug. 1965. Accessed 16 Apr. 2002 at ; also, C.N. Mooers and L.P. Deutsch, "TRAC, a Text-Handling Language," paper presented at the 20th Nat'l Conf. Assoc. Computing Machinery, Cleveland, Ohio, Aug. 1965.
21. J.C.R. Licklider, "Man-Computer Interaction in Information Systems," Toward a National Information System: Second Ann. National Colloquium on Information Retrieval, M. Rubinoff, ed., Spartan Books, Washington, D.C., 1965, pp. 72-73.
22. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Project Intrex: Semiannual Activity Report, 20 September 1965 to 15 March 1966,Cambridge, Mass., 1966.
23. R. Bregzis, "Query Language for the Reactive Catalog," Fourth Ann. Nat'l Colloquium on Information Retrieval, A.B. Tonik, ed., National Information Inc., Philadelphia, 1967, pp. 77-91.
24. Coyle&Stewart consultants, "SERUPD—The Serials Update Program Specifications for the Pilot I System,"Washington, D.C., 1968, (internal document); also, Coyle&Stewart, "Final Design Specifications of the Circulation Control System for the University of Toronto Library," Washington, D.C., 1969, (internal document).
25. R.H. Blackburn, Evolution of the Heart: A History of the University of Toronto Library Up To 1981, pp. 292-293.

Ritvars Bregzis, Calvin Gotlieb, Carole Moore, "The Beginning of Automation in the University of Toronto Library, 1963-1972," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 50-70, April-June 2002, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2002.1010069
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