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Sperry Rand's Third-Generation Computers 1964-1980
January-March 2001 (vol. 23 no. 1)
pp. 3-16

The change from transistors to integrated circuits in the mid-1960s marked the beginning of third-generation computers. A late entrant (1962) in the general-purpose, transistor computer market, Sperry Rand Corporation moved quickly to produce computers using ICs. The Univac 1108's success (1965) reversed the company's declining fortunes in the large-scale arena, while the 9000 series upheld its market share in smaller computers. Sperry Rand failed to develop a successful minicomputer and, faced with IBM's dominant market position by the end of the 1970s, struggled to maintain its position in the computer industry.

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George T. Gray, Ronald Q. Smith, "Sperry Rand's Third-Generation Computers 1964-1980," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 3-16, Jan.-March 2001, doi:10.1109/85.910845
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