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Sperry Rand's Transistor Computers
July-September 1998 (vol. 20 no. 3)
pp. 16-26

Sperry Rand Corporation was an early entry in the computer industry through its acquisitions of Engineering Research Associates and Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation. It produced some of the first transistor computers for military applications, but it experienced great difficulty in producing transistor computers for the general-purpose computing market. This paper describes the major transistor computers Sperry Rand developed.

1. D.E. Lundstrom, A Few Good Men from Univac, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987.
2. J.P. Eckert, "Disclosure of a Magnetic Calculating Machine," Univ. of Pennsylvania, Moore School of Electrical Eng., memorandum of Jan. 29, 1944; in H. Lukoff, From Dits to Bits: A Personal History of the Electronic Computer.Portland, Oreg.: 1979, pp. 207-209; also J.P. Eckert and J. Mauchly, "Automatic High Speed Computing: A Progress Report on the EDVAC," portions reprinted in L.R. Johnson, System Structure in Data, Programs, and Computers. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1970, pp. 184-187.
3. Frances Holberton Interview (CBI 50), Charles Babbage Institute, Univ. of Minnesota.
4. B. Goody Katz and A. Phillips, "The Computer Industry," R.R. Nelson, ed. Government and Technical Progress.New York: Pergamon Press, 1982.
5. E.D. Zimmer, "The X-308 Computer," Proc. Symp. New Computers: A Report From the Manufacturers, ACM, Los Angeles Chapter, Los Angeles, 1957.
6. D.E. Lundstrom, A Few Good Men from Univac, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987.
7. Information on the 490 is taken from George Champine's draft chapter in an unfinished history of Sperry-Univac computers in the Sperry-Univac Archives at the Hagley Library, Wilmington, Del., and from Auerbach Corporation's Standard EDP Reports (1968).
8. Information on the 418 also comes from George Champine's draft chapter and Auerbach's Standard EDP Reports.
9. Robert E. McDonald Deposition (16-18 July 1974), Sperry Univac Archives, Hagley Library, Wilmington, Del.
10. "An Examination of the Participating Lease Plan as Applied to the Univac III Program" (20 August 1964), Sperry Univac Archives.

Citation:
George Gray, Ron Smith, "Sperry Rand's Transistor Computers," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 16-26, July-Sept. 1998, doi:10.1109/85.707571
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