The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.04 - Winter (1996 vol.18)
pp: 42-48
<p><it>The example of the electrical analyzer, a genre of computing artifacts known mainly by their development and use in the context of electrification, is treated as representative of the historical oscillation between analog and digital computing orientations. Artificial electric lines, short-circuit calculating boards, and alternating current network analyzers are discussed as examples of electrical analyzers. Counting on the successful employment of the ideology of intelligent machines in the context of the history of the electrical analyzer, the first part of the article searches for a direct ancestor of the post-World War II computing ideology. The second part of the article proposes to interpret the ideology of intelligent machines as an effect related to the social conditions of the appropriation of computing labor. Overall, the article argues about the historical, i.e., antiessentialist, character of the demarcation of digital from analog orientation.</it></p>
Aristotle Tympas, "From Digital to Analog and Back: The Ideology of Intelligent Machines in the History of the Electrical Analyzer, 1870s-1960s", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.18, no. 4, pp. 42-48, Winter 1996, doi:10.1109/85.539915
1. D. MacKenzie, Knowing Machines: Essays on Technical Change.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996.
2. G.L. Miller, "Charles Babbage and the Design of Intelligence: Computers and Society in l9th-Century England," Bulletin of Science, Technology, and Society, vol. 10, pp. 68-76, 1990.
3. H. Collins, Artificial Experts: Social Knowledge and Intelligent Machines.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990, pp.28-29.
4. J.M. Jordan, Machine-Age Ideology: Social Engineering and American Liberalism, 1911-1939.Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1994.
5. S. Lubar, "Representation and Power," Technology and Culture, Supplement to vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 54-81, Apr. 1995.
6. D.S. Landes, The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe From 1750 to the Present.Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1969.
7. R.F. Hirsch, Technology and Transformation in the American Utility Industry.Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989.
8. S. Lubar, Infoculture: The Smithsonian Book of Information Age Inventions.Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993.
9. T.P. Hughes, Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society, 1880-1930.Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1983, p. 376.
10. T.P. Hughes, "ENIAC: Invention of a Computer," Technikgeschichte, Bd. 42, nr. 2, pp. 148-165, 1975.
11. P.H. Sydenham, Measuring Instruments: Tools of Knowledge and Control.London: Peter Peregrinus, 1979; S. Bennet, A History of Control Engineering, 1800-1930.London: Peter Peregrinus, 1979; S. Bennet, A History of Control Engineering, 1930-1955.London: Peter Peregrinus, 1993.
12. J. Van Den Ende, "Tidal Calculations in the Netherlands, 1920-1960," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 14, no. 3, 1992.
13. P.L. Alger, ed., The Life and Times of Gabriel Kron.Schenectady, N.Y: Mohawk Development, 1969.
14. For a more detailed history of the electrical analyzer, see A. Tympas, "Between the Mechanical Calculator and the Electronic Computer: The History and the Historiography of the Electrical Analyzer," MS thesis, Dept. of Technology and Science Policy, Georgia Institute of Tech nology, May 1995.
15. M.R. Williams, A History of Computing Technology.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1985, p. 256.
16. T.T.P.B. Warren, "On the Applications of the Calculating Machine of M. Thomas De Colmar to Electrical Computations," J. Soc. Telegraph Engineers, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 141-167, Apr.10, 1872.
17. Warren, 1872, op. cit., p. 165.
18. Warren, 1872, op. cit., p. 164.
19. "Testing Instruments for Electric Light Companies," Telegraphic J. and Electrical Rev., vol. 10, no. 238, p. 433, June17, 1882.
20. B. Sinclair, "The Power of Ceremony: Creating an International Engineering Community," unpublished paper.
21. A.E. Kennely, Artificial Electric Lines: Their Theory, Mode of Construction and Uses.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1917; sixth ed.
22. A. MacFarlane, "On the Analytical Treatment of Alternating Currents," Proc. Int'l Electrical Congress,Chicago, Aug.21-25, 1983, Institute of American Engineers, New York, 1984, pp. 24-32.
23. W.S. Murray, "A Super Power System for the Region Between Boston and Washington, D.C.," Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 123, Washington, D.C., 1921; L. DeGraaf, "Corporate Liberalism and Electric Power System Planning in the 1920s," Business History Rev., vol. 64, pp. 1-31, Spring 1990.
24. R. Kline, Steinmetz: Engineer and Socialist.Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1992.
25. W. Aspray, 1993, op. cit., p. 36.
26. W.W. Lewis, "Calculation of Short-Circuit Currents in Alternating-Current Systems," General Electric Rev., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 140-145, Feb. 1919.
27. J.L. Meikle, Twenty Century Limited: Industrial Design in America, 1925-1939.Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press, 1979.
28. Lewis, 1919, op. cit.
29. D.E. Nye, Electrifying America: Social-Meanings of a New Technology, 1880-1940.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990.
30. O.R. Schuring, "A Miniature A-C Transmission System," Trans. AIEE, vol. 42, pp. 831-840, June 1923.
31. Lindgren et al., 1985, op. cit.
32. "Network Calculator ... Mathematician par Excellence," Westinghouse Engineer, vol. 4, front cover, July 1944.
33. H.P. Peters, "Georgia Tech's A.C. Network Calculator," Georgia Tech Alumnus, vol. 2S, no. 2, p. 13, Nov./Dec. 1946.
34. Lindgren et al., 1985, op. cit., p. 101.
35. Lindgren et al., 1985, op. cit., p. 103.
36. Warren, 1972, op. cit.
37. H.L. Hazen, O.R. Schuring, and M.L. Gardner, "The M.I.T Network Analyzer, Design and Application to Power System Problems," Trans. AIEE, p. 1,114, July 1930.
38. Nye, 1990, op. cit.
39. "Network Calculator ... Mathematician par Excellence," 1944, op. cit.
40. J. Cissna, "TVA Installs A-C Calculating Board for Detailed System Studies," Electrical South, pp. 30-32, Oct. 1983.
41. T.G. Leclair, "Board Earns 8 Times Its Cost," Electrical World, pp. 28(2776)-29(2777), Nov.23, 1935.
42. R. Treat, "Critical Analysis of System Operation Improves Service and Saves Money," General Electric Rev., vol. 41, p. 307, 1938.
43. O. Fanning, "Tech Electric Brain 'Fixes' India Power," Atlanta J., p. 2-B, July25, 1948.
44. D. Springs and R.A. Thomas, "A-C Network Calculator," Georgia Tech Engineer, pp. 9-11 and 42, Mar. 1949.
45. "Ramblin' Wreck Winner," Atlanta Constitution, p. 18-B, Nov.30, 1947.
46. W.W. Lewis, "A New Short-Circuit Calculating Table," General Electric Rev., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 669-671, Aug. 1920.
47. S. Fifer, Analogue Computations: Theory, Techniques and Applications, vol. 1. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961, p. 3.
48. P. Ceruzzi, "An Unforeseen Revolution: Computers and Expectations, 1935-1985," J.J. Corn, ed., Imagining Tomorrow: History, Technology, and the American Future.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986, pp. 188-201.
49. J.S. Small, "General-Purpose Electronic Analog Computing: 1945-1965," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 15, no. 2, 1993; J.S Small, "Engineering, Technology and Design: The Post-Second World War Development of Electronic Analogue Computers," History and Technology, vol. 11, pp. 33-48, 1994.
50. D.E. Hyndman, Analog and Hybrid Computing.Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 1970.
51. J.M. Sienkiewicz, "An Introduction to Analog Computers: Now You Can Take Your First Step Into the Fascinating World of Electronic Brains," Popular Electronics, pp. 65-68 and 95, Dec. 1961.
52. G.W. Bills, "Progress in the Application of Digital Computers to Power System Problems," Proc. Am. Power Conf., vol. VXI, p. 465, 1954.
53. Maginnis et al., 1959, op. cit., p. 641.
54. O. Aaserud and I.R. Nielsen, "Trends in Current Analog Design—a Panel Debate," Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, vol. 7, pp. 7-9, 1995.
55. P.E. Ceruzzi, "Electronic and Computer Science, 1940-1975: A Coevolution," paper presented to the annual SHOT meeting, Pittsburgh, Pa., Oct.23, 1986.
56. D.R. Miller as quoted in "Whatever Happened to Analog Computers?" IEEE Spectrum, p. 18, Mar. 1987.
57. G.E. Valley, Jr., "How the SAGE Development Began," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 7, no. 3, p. 224, July 1985.
58. H.A. Travers, "The Network Calculator Brought Up to Date," Westinghouse Engineer, vol. 4, pp. 111-114, July 1944.
59. Warren, 1872, op. cit., p. 164.
60. Warren, 1872, op. cit. p. 145.
61. Warren, 1872, op. cit., pp. 164-165.
62. Warren, 1872, op. cit., p. 167.
63. "Network Calculator ... Mathematician par Excellence," 1944, op. cit.
64. Treat, 1938, op. cit., p. 307.
65. Lindgren et al., 1985, op. cit. p. 87.
66. V. Bush, "The Differential Analyzer: A New Machine for Solving Differential Equations," Franklin Institute J., vol. 212, p. 448, 1931.
67. "Network Calculator ... Mathematician par Excellence," op. cit.
68. Treat, 1938, op. cit., p. 307.
69. Hughes, 1975, op. cit., p. 149.
70. F.J. Maginnis, "Electric Utility Problems Programmed for Digital Computers," Proc. Am. Power Conf., vol. 20, p. 631, 1958.
71. J.A. Casazza, The Development of Electric Power Transmission: The Role Played by Technology, Institutions, and People, IEEE Case Histories of Achievement in Science and Tech nology, vol. 2. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1993, p. 84.
72. W.W. Stifler, ed., High-Speed Computing Devices.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950, p. 29.
73. Aspray, 1994, op. cit., p. 194, footnote 21.
74. G.M. Hopper and J.W. Mauchly, "Influence of Programming Techniques on the Design of Computers," Proc. IEEE, vol. 72, no. 9, Sept. 1984, reprinted in Proc. IRE, vol. 41, no. 10, p. 1,214.
75. Lubar, 1993, op. cit.
76. L. Owens, "Vannevar Bush and the Differential Analyzer: The Text and Context of an Early Computer," Technology and Culture, 1986, pp. 63-95.
77. C. Marvin, When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking About Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century.New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1988.
78. Nye, 1990, op. cit., p. 389.
79. Marvin, 1988, op. cit., p. 7.
80. A. Turing, "Computing Machinery and Intelligence," reprinted in D. Hofstadter and D. Dennet, eds., The Mind's I.Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1981, p. 57.
20 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool