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Issue No.04 - Winter (1996 vol.18)
pp: 5-15
ABSTRACT
<p><it>This article is a comparative analysis of the British and U.S. differential analyzers from 1930 to 1945. The author examines the development of the Vannevar Bush and D.R. Hartree analyzers in the context of the U.S. engineering community and British scientific community, respectively. He argues that this practical machine was more readily and enthusiastically adopted by U.S. engineers, while British scientists remained skeptical of the differential analyzer due to their theoretical professional style. As a result, Hartree was a "voice in the wilderness" in Britain, while Bush received extensive funding and had the support of an enthusiastic engineering environment.</it></p>
CITATION
Mark D. Bowles, "U.S. Technological Enthusiasm and British Technological Skepticism in the Age of the Analog Brain", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.18, no. 4, pp. 5-15, Winter 1996, doi:10.1109/85.539911
REFERENCES
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42. A. Porter letter to author, Jan.22, 1995.
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44. Farewell letter to Bush, by the eight-member differential analyzer staff, Dec.31, 1938. Copy provided by A. Porter.
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63. Bush, Pieces of the Action, p. 54.
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66. "Such is modern life. Mordor in our midst." Tolkien to R. Unwin, as found in ibid., p. 87.
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69. Nyce and Kahn, "A Machine for the Mind," From Memex to Hypertext, pp. 45-59.
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75. Rockefeller Foundation Archives, RG1.1, Series 224D, Box 2, Folder 22, 36209. Rockefeller Foundation Archives, RG1.1, Series 224D, Box 4, Folder 31, 46178. E. Levold letter to author, Apr.12, 1994. F.M. Verzuth, Memorandum on the MIT Differential Analyzer, Nov.10, 1954, MIT Museum.
76. Letter from H.R. Balvert, Jan.9, 1935, London Science Museum, file 1949-134. D.R. Hartree and A. Porter, "The Construction and Operation of a Model Differential Analyser," Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, vol. 79, no. 4, p. 52, 1934-35.
77. M. Croarken, Early Scientific Computing in Britain, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1990.
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90. "Robot Has More Brains Than Man," Boston Post, Oct.30, 1945. Other examples of this type include: "A Great Electro-Mechanical Brain," Life, vol. 20, Jan.14, 1946. N. Genet, "100-Ton Brain at MIT," Scholastic, vol. 48, Feb.4, 1946.
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93. A nonymous, "A Differential Analyser," The Times (of London), Mar.28, 1935, p. 9.
94. A nonymous, "Most Wonderful Machine in Europe Made From Toy," News Chronicle, Feb.8, 1935. A nonymous, "Machine Solves Mathematical Problems: A Wonderful Meccano Mechanism," Meccano Magazine, June30, 1934.
95. "A Calculating Machine Working by Curves for Manchester University," Manchester Guardian, Jan.25, 1934.
96. Bush oral history, MIT Archives, box 1, reel 1-B, p. 61A
97. G. Bowker, and R. Giordano, "Interview With Tom Kilburn," IEEE: Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 15, no. 3, p. 20, 1993.
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