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Issue No.03 - Fall (1996 vol.18)
pp: 13-28
ABSTRACT
<p><it>A group of young women college graduates involved with the ENIAC are identified. As a result of their education, intelligence, as well as their being at the right place and at the right time, these young women were able to perform important computer work. Many learned to use effectively "the machine that changed the world" to assist in solving some of the important scientific problems of the time. Ten of them report on their background and experiences. It is now appropriate that these women be given recognition for what they did as "pioneers" of the Age of Computing.</it></p>
CITATION
W. Barkley Fritz, "The Women of ENIAC", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.18, no. 3, pp. 13-28, Fall 1996, doi:10.1109/85.511940
REFERENCES
1. W.B. Fritz, "ENIAC—a Problem Solver," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 25-41, Spring 1994.
2. H.H. Goldstine, The Computer From Pascal to von Neumann.Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1980.
3. J.B. Scarborough, Numerical Mathematical Analysis, first edition of the widely used college text, appeared before World War II. Second Edition published by Johns Hopkins Press, 1950.
4. J.G. Brainerd, "Comment," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 391, Oct. 1981.
5. R. Rauschenberger Ammlung private correspondence, Feb.12, 1995.
6. K. McNulty Mauchly Antonelli private correspondence, Feb.7, 1995.
7. L. Todd Butler private correspondence, Mar.18, 1995.
8. J.A.N. Lee, Computer Pioneers. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif.: 1995, pp. 328-334,
9. J. Jennings Bartik private correspondence, Feb.25, 1995.
10. J. von Neumann, "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC," Univ. of Pennsylvania, Moore School of Electrical Eng., June30, 1945, p. 20. (Reprinted in the Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 27-75.)
11. R.F. Clippinger, "A Logical Coding System Applied to the ENIAC," BRL 673, Ballistics Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., Sept. 1948.
12. B. Dimsdale and R.F. Clippinger, "The Register Code for the ENIAC," included in BRL TN 30, "Report on the Third Annual Meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery,"Oak Ridge, Tenn., Apr. 18-20, 1949, published Aug. 1994.
13. M. Wescoff Meltzer private correspondence, July13, 1995.
14. F. Bilas Spence private correspondence, Oct.2, 1995.
15. H. McAllister Reitwiesner private correspondence, July26, 1995.
16. Betty Holberton phone conversation, Sept.27, 1995. This information differs in places from that found in reference 8.
17. M. Bierstein Malone private communication, Aug.13, 1995.
18. W. Wyatt Sigmund private communication, Oct.7, 1995.
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