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The Mechanical Analog Computers of Hannibal Ford and William Newell
April-June 1993 (vol. 15 no. 2)
pp. 19-34

The history of mechanical analog computers is described from early developments to their peak in World War II and to their obsolescence in the 1950s. The chief importance of most of these computers was their contribution to the superb gunnery of the US Navy. The work of Hannibal Ford, William Newell, and the Ford Instrument Co. is the framework around which this account is based.

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A. Ben Clymer, "The Mechanical Analog Computers of Hannibal Ford and William Newell," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 19-34, April-June 1993, doi:10.1109/85.207741
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