The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.02 - April-June (1993 vol.15)
pp: 19-34
ABSTRACT
<p>The history of mechanical analog computers is described from early developments to their peak in World War II and to their obsolescence in the 1950s. The chief importance of most of these computers was their contribution to the superb gunnery of the US Navy. The work of Hannibal Ford, William Newell, and the Ford Instrument Co. is the framework around which this account is based.</p>
CITATION
A. Ben Clymer, "The Mechanical Analog Computers of Hannibal Ford and William Newell", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.15, no. 2, pp. 19-34, April-June 1993, doi:10.1109/85.207741
REFERENCES
1. B.O. Williams,Computing with Electricity, 1935-1945, doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, 1984.
2. J.C. Maxwell, "Description of a New Form of Planimeter, an Instrument for Measuring the Areas of Plain Figures Drawn on Paper,"Trans. Royal Scottish Society of Arts, Vol. 4, 1855.
3. J. Thomson, "On an Integrating Machine Having a New Kinematic Principle,"Proc. Royal Society, Vol. 28, 1876, p. 262.
4. V. Ventosa, "Integrating Anemometer," letter to the editor,Nature, Nov. 24, 1881.
5. V. Bush, "12th Josiah Willard Gibbs Lecture," Oct. 1936.
6. W. Thomson, "Mechanical Integration of the Linear Differential Equations of the Second Order with Variable Coefficients,"Proc. Royal Society, Vol. 24, 1876, p. 269.
7. V. Bush, "Differential Analyzer,"J. Franklin Inst., Vol. 212, No. 4, 1931, pp. 447-488.
8. W. Thomson, "Machine for the Solution of Simultaneous Liear Equations,"Proc. Royal Society, Vol. 28, 1878.
9. M. Fry, "Designing Computing Mechanisms,"Machine Design, Aug.-Dec. 1945 and Jan. 1946.
10. A.B. Clymer,Mechanical Integrators, master's thesis, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio, 1946.
11. Dept. of Ordnance and Gunnery,US Bureau of Naval Personnel, US Naval Academy, in three volumes, NAVPERS 10798- A, US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1955, 1957, 1959.
12. B. Rowland and W.B. Boyd,US Navy Bureau of Ordnance in World War II, Bureau of Ordnance: Dept. of the Navy, US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1953.
13. N. Friedman,US Naval Weapons, Naval Inst. Press, Annapolis, Md., 1982.
14. Anon., "Hannibal C. Ford is Honored by Cornell,"The Great Neck (N.Y.) News, July 24, 1953.
15. Anon., Obituary of H.C. Ford.New York Times, Mar. 14, 1955.
16. H.C. Ford, US Patent 1317915 (granted 1919) and US Patent 1317916 (granted 1919).
17. US Naval Academy,Notes on Fire Control, 1933, 1941.
18. E.A. Link, Jr., US Patent 1825462, Sept. 29, 1931.
19. W. de Beauclair, "Alwin Walther, IPM, and the Development of Calculator/Computer Technology in Germany, 1930-1945,"Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1986, pp. 334-350.
20. T.C. Fry, "Industrial Mathematics,"Research -- A National Resource II, Section 6, Part 4, 1941, pp. 268-288. Reprinted inAmerican Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 48, Supplement 11, pp. 1-38.
21. W.H.C. Higgins, B.D. Holbrook, and J.W. Emling, "Defense Research at Bell Laboratories: Electrical Computers for Fire Control,"Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 4, No. 3, July 1982, pp. 218-236.
22. P. Holst, "George A. Philbrick and Polythemus -- The First Electronic Training Simulator,"Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 4, No. 2, Apr. 1982, pp. 143-146.
23. H.G. Och, "Computer for Coastal Guns,"Bell Laboratories Record, Vol. 24, May 1946, pp. 177-182.
24. R.D. Rippere, "An Analog Computer for Flight Training,"Bell Laboratories Record, Vol. 25, Feb. 1947, pp. 78-81.
25. P. Crawford,Instrumental Analysis in Matrix Analysis, bachelor's thesis, MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1939.
26. P. Crawford,Automatic Control by Arithmetical Operations, master's thesis, MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1942.
27. Anon., "Mathematical Instruments,"Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th ed., Vol. 15, 1911.
28. Anon., "Noteworthy Patents,"Machine Design, May 23, 1963.
29. J. Berry, "Clifford Edward Berry, 1918-1963,"Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1986, pp. 361-369.
30. J. R. Fox, ed.,Shipboard Weapon Systems, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md., undated (1976?).
31. J. Rothwell, US Patent 2002585, 1935.
32. W. Tamlyn et al., "Instruction Books" for all products, Ford Instrument Co., published for the US Navy et al., various years.
33. US Bureau of Naval Personnel,Principles of Naval Ordnance and Gunnery, NAVPERS 10783-A, 1965.
34. W.H.S. "H.C. Ford, Working at Home, Follows Company's Progress,"Production for Victory(house organ of Ford Instrument Co.), Oct. 20, 1943, pp. 6-8.
35. K.L. Wildes and N.A. Lindgren,A Century of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1882-1982, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1985.
24 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool