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Issue No.03 - July-September (1991 vol.13)
pp: 261-272
<p> Punched-card machines were in a number of ways predecessors to computers. The punched-card technique was invented in the United States in the 1880s by Herman Hollerith, who continued development for another two decades. His firm later became the main component of IBM. Only two main competitors to Hollerith emerged, Powers in the United States and Bull first in Norway and later in France. This article covers the development of the Bull machines in the Norwegian period, 1918- 1930.</p>
Lars Heide, "From Invention to Production: The Development of Punched-card Machines by F. R. Bull and K. A. Knutsen 1918-1930", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.13, no. 3, pp. 261-272, July-September 1991, doi:10.1109/MAHC.1991.10024
1. Austrian, Geoffrey D. 1982.Herman Hollerith--Forgotten Giant of Information Processing, Columbia University Press, New York.
2. Barca, E. 1974 No. 1. "Den annen datapioner i Norge, ing. Frederik Rosing Bull."Datapp. 26-28.
3. Bashe, C. J., L. R. Johnson, J. H. Palmer, and E. W. Pugh. 1986.IBM's Early Computers. Cambridge, Mass., The MIT Press.
4. Bull ...Its History. 1985. Bull, Paris.
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6. Bull, F. R. 1918. "Automat for Spareur,"Norsk Patent Nr. 28.732.
7. Bull, F. R. 1924. "Automatisk registreringsmaskin for statistiske og lignedeøiemed,"Norsk Patent Nr. 34.630.
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10. Bull, J. 1938.Den trønderske slekt Bull.Oslo.
11. Bull interviews 1974. Transcript (in English) of a number of interviews with among other K. A. Knutsen and H. Hartzner recorded by the company in 1974.
12. Connolly, J. 1968.A History of Computing in Europe. IBM, New York.
13. Engelbourg, S. 1954.International Business Machines, A Business History. Ph.D. dissertation 1954. Published in New York 1976.
14. Heide, L. 1989.Hulkort- og edb-teknologi. Tekniske udvikling og anvendelser i Danmark indtil 1970(Punched-card and Computer Technology. Technical Development and Applications in Denmark until 1970), unpublished Ph.D. dissertation.
15. Hollerith, H. 1931. "Automatic Group Control for tabulating Machines,"U.S. Patent No. 1,830,699.
16. Interview with H. Hartzner October 1958 inHulkortjournalen. Copenhagen, pp. 5-7.
17. Knutsen, K. A. 1934a. "Trykkeværk, særlig i forbindelse med tabelleringsmaskin for gjennemhullede registerkort,"Norsk Patent Nr. 53.545.
18. Knutsen, K. A. 1934b. "Sorteringsmaskin for gjennemhullede registerkort,"Norsk Patent Nr. 53.950.
19. Knutsen, K. A. 1935. "Trykkeværk, særlig i forbindelse med tabelleringsmaskin for gjennemhullede registerkort,"Norsk Patent Nr. 55.409.
20. Knutsen, K. A. 1975, Interview. (Typescript in French, 89 p.) Bull Archive, Paris.
21. Knutsen, R. August 1927.Oversigt(Bull-N).
22. Knutsen, R. 1930.Bull's maskiner(Bull-N).
23. Mounier-Kuhn, P. 1989. "Bull: A World-Wide Company Born in Europe,"Annals of the History of Computing, 11pp. 279-297.
24. Nerheim, G. and H. W. Nordvik. 1987."Not Only Machines..." The History of IBM in Norway 1935-1985. IBM, Oslo.
25. Tholstrup, H. L. December 1958. "Perforated Storage Media,"Electrical Manufacturing, pp. 53-61 and 276.
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