This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Three Inventors-Scenes from Early German Computing History
April-June 1990 (vol. 12 no. 2)
pp. 109-126

Most of the inventions described in this article originated in Germany in the 1920s and early 1930s. Emil Schilling filed a patent for a pneumatic calculator control system in 1926; Francisco Campos designed a mechanical storage device in the 20's; and Adolf Weygandt built a relay calculator for determinants in 1932. While the three inventors did not directly effect the development of the modern computer, their ideas can be viewed as parts of independent technological traditions, which are quite common in the history of data processing.

1. Anonymous. 1959. "The History of the Two Merging Companies."ICT House Magazine, 1p. 4.
2. Atanasoff, J. V. 1940.Computing machine for the solution of large systems of linear algebraic equations(unpublished memorandum). Iowa State College, Ames. (Reprinted in: Randell, B. (ed.) 1974.The Origins of Digital Computers. Springer, Berlin, 2nd edition, p. 305.)
3. Augarten, S. 1984.Bit by Bit, an Illustrated History of Computers, New York, Ticknor&Fields.
4. de Beauclair, W. October 1986. "Alwin Walther, IPM, and the Development of Calculator/Computer Technology in Germany, 1930-1945."Annals of the History of Computing, p. 334.
5. Bülow, R. 1987. "Ein unbekannter Computerpionier."Kultur und Technik, 11, p. 160.
6. Campbell-Kelly, M. 1986.ICL: A Business and Technical History(Draft). University of Warwick, Coventry.
7. Campbell-Kelly, M. 1987. Letter to the author (21st December, 1987).
8. Campos, F. P. 1944.Applications mécano-comptables des machines a totalisateurs multiples. Paris: Chiron.
9. Campos Campaña, F. 1921. "Current-Account-Calculating Machine" United States Patent No. 1,551,008 (Application filed March 1, 1921, patented Aug. 25, 1925), United States Patent Office, Washington D.C.
10. Cauer, W. 1935. "Elektrische Methoden und Maschinen zur Auflösung von Systemen linearer Gleichungen."Elektrische Nachrichtentechnik, 12, p. 147.
11. Couffignal, L. 1933.Les machinesàcalculer, leurs principes, leur evolution. Paris: Gauthier-Villars, (Extracts reprinted in: Randell, B. (ed.) 1975.The Origins of Digital Computers. Second edition, Berlin: Springer, p. 141.)
12. Gray, A. 1908.Lord Kelvin: an account of his scientific life and work. London: Dent&Co., p. 208.
13. Hinz Fabrik, c. 1930. "Campos-Buchhaltungsmaschine." Company Document, Berlin-Mariendorf.
14. Hinz Fabrik c. 1931. "Campos." Company Document, Berlin-Mariendorf.
15. Hughes, T. B. 1974. "ENIAC: Invention of a Computer."Technikgeschichte 42, p. 176.
16. de Paula, F. R. M. 1928a. Letter to Messrs. Morland&Impey, Ltd. (16th July, 1928).
17. de Paula, F. R. M. 1928b. Letter to Messrs. F. P. and F. L. Impey (10th December, 1928).
18. Schilling, E. 1910. "Über Grundlage, Wesen und Nichtigkeit des Patents." Thesis, Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexanders-Universität.
19. Schilling, E. 1926. "Steuerungsvorrichtung für Rechenmaschinen o.dgl." German Patent No. 580 675 (patented 30th September, 1926), Reichspatentamt, Berlin.
20. Weygandt, E. A. 1933. "Die elektromechanische Determinantenmaschine.Zeitschrift für Instrumentenkunde 53," p. 114.
21. Weygandt, E. A. 1938. "Der Drehwählerautomat für die Ausrechnung von Determinanten." Thesis, Hanover, Technische Hochschule.
22. Zuse, K. 1984.Der Computer. Mein Lebenswerk. Berlin: Springer.
23. Zuse, K. 1986. Letter to the author (7th July, 1986).

Ralf Bulow, "Three Inventors-Scenes from Early German Computing History," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 109-126, April-June 1990, doi:10.1109/MAHC.1990.10024
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.