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On the Beginnings of Computer Development in Poland
April-June 1990 (vol. 12 no. 2)
pp. 103-107

Development of computers in Poland began at the end of 1948 with the formation of the Group for Mathematical Apparatus of the Mathematical Institute in Warsaw. The beginning was not easy because at that time Warsaw was still rebuilding after the destruction of World War II. The first analogue computer, called the "Analyzer of Differential Equations, " was completed in 1954 and then regularly used for several years. The first successful digital computer, called XYZ, was completed in 1958. It performed about 800 operations per second and became a milestone in the development of Polish computers. Soon the XYZ computer was improved and, under the name ZAM 2, was manufactured and installed in many places in Poland and abroad. As asset of XYZ and ZAM 2 was the system of Automatic Coding, introduced in 1960 and often called a Polish FORTRAN.

1. Buchholz, W. 1953. "The System Design of the IBM Type 701 Computer."Proc IRE, 10, pp. 1262-1275.
2. Lukaszewicz, L. 1961. "SAKO-an Automatic Coding System."Annual Review in Automatic Programming, 2, pp. 161-176.
3. Lukaszewicz, L. 1963. "Outline of the Logical Design of the ZAM 41 Computer."IEEE Transactions of Computers, The Computer Systems Issue, EC 12, pp. 609-612.
4. Lukaszewicz, L. 1989. "O Poczatkach Informatyki W Polsce (On the Beginnings of Computer Development in Poland)."Nauka Polska (Polish Science), 37, pp. 87-92. (This article paper contains references to 14 papers written in Polish about beginnings of computers in Poland.)
5. Marczyn´ski, R. W. 1980. "The First Seven Years of Polish Digital Computers."Annals of the History of Computing 2, pp. 37-48.
6. Mazurkiewicz, A. 1961. "Arithmetic Formulae and the Use of Subroutines in SAKO."Annual Review in Automating Programming, 2, pp. 177-195.

Citation:
Leon Lukaszewicz, "On the Beginnings of Computer Development in Poland," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 103-107, April-June 1990, doi:10.1109/MAHC.1990.10021
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