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From Gamma 2 to Gamma E.T.: The Birth of Electronic Computing at Bull
January-March 1990 (vol. 12 no. 1)
pp. 5-22

In 1949 the bull company created a team of electronics engineers. Two of them traveled to the U.S.A. in order to become acquainted with recent achievements in electronic computing. In 1951, they developed the Gamma 2 calculator, based on germanium diodes and delay lines and designed to be connected to the Bull BS tabulator for business applications. A commercial version, the Gamma 3, marketed in 1952, became a bestseller. Different models followed, including in 1956 the drum-augmented "Gamma E.T.," Bull's first stored-program computer.

1. Bacchus, P., and P. Pouzet. 1964 "Autoprogrammation pour calculateur Bull Gamma ET: APB." Paris,Chiffres, Revue Francaise de Traitement de l'Information, no. 1, pp. 3-14.
2. Bashe, C. J., L. R. Johnson, J. H. Palmer, and E. W. Pugh. 1986.IBM's Early Computers. Cambridge, Mass., The MIT Press.
3. Boucher, H. 1960.Organisation et fonctionnement des machines arithmétiques, Paris, Masson.

Bruno Leclerc, "From Gamma 2 to Gamma E.T.: The Birth of Electronic Computing at Bull," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 5-22, Jan.-March 1990, doi:10.1109/MAHC.1990.10010
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