
This Article  
 
Share  
Bibliographic References  
Add to:  
Digg Furl Spurl Blink Simpy Del.icio.us Y!MyWeb  
Search  
 
ASCII Text  x  
William Aspray, Michael Gunderloy, "Early Computing and Numerical Analysis at the National Bureau of Standards," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 312, Spring, 1989.  
BibTex  x  
@article{ 10.1109/MAHC.1989.10002, author = {William Aspray and Michael Gunderloy}, title = {Early Computing and Numerical Analysis at the National Bureau of Standards}, journal ={IEEE Annals of the History of Computing}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, issn = {10586180}, year = {1989}, pages = {312}, doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.1989.10002}, publisher = {IEEE Computer Society}, address = {Los Alamitos, CA, USA}, }  
RefWorks Procite/RefMan/Endnote  x  
TY  MGZN JO  IEEE Annals of the History of Computing TI  Early Computing and Numerical Analysis at the National Bureau of Standards IS  1 SN  10586180 SP3 EP12 EPD  312 A1  William Aspray, A1  Michael Gunderloy, PY  1989 VL  11 JA  IEEE Annals of the History of Computing ER   
By the mid1950s, computing became a radically new, highly complex, capitalintensive technology  one which required resources that universities were unable and the companies were unwilling to provide. This article tells the story of one government agency, the National Bureau of Standards, whose efforts in those early years helped to bridge this gap and to initiate modern computing.
1. Aiken, H. H. (ed.) 1951.Proceedings of a Second Symposium on LargeScale Digital Calculating Machinery. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press.
2. Alexander, S. N. 1955. "Introduction" toComputer Development(SEACandDYSEAC)at the National Bureau of Standards, National Bureau of Standards, Circular 551.
3. Archibald, R. C. 1942. "The New York Mathematical Tables Project,"Science96, pp. 294296.
4. Archibald, R. C. 1946. "Conference on Advanced Computation Techniques,"Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation2, pp. 6567.
5. Aspray, W. 1989. "The Transformation of Numerical Analysis by the Computer: An Example From the Work of John von Neumann." In J. McCleary and D. Rowe (eds.),History of Modern Mathematics, New York, Academic Press.
6. Aspray, W. forthcoming.John von Neumann and the Origins of Modern Computing.
7. Bigelow, J. 1980. "Computer Development at the Institute for Advanced Study." In N. Metropolis, J. Howlett, and G.C. Rota (eds.),A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century, New York, Academic Press, pp. 291310.
8. Blanch, G. and Rhodes, I. 1974. "TableMaking at the National Bureau of Standards." In B. K. P. Scaife (ed.),Studies in Numerical Analysis: Papers in Honor of Cornelius Lanczos, London, Academic Press, pp. 16.
9. Burks, A. W. and Burks, A. R. 1982. "The ENIAC: First GeneralPurpose Electronic Computer,"Annals of the History of Computing4, pp. 310399.
10. Cochrane, R. C. 1966.Measures for Progress: A History of the National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Commerce.
11. Curtiss, J. H. 1948. "A Federal Program in Applied Mathematics,"Science107, pp. 257262.
12. Curtiss, J. H. 1949. "Some Recent Trends in Applied Mathematics,"American Scientist37, pp. 587624.
13. Curtiss, J. H. 1951. "The Institute for Numerical Analysis of the National Bureau of Standards,"Monthly Research Report of the Office of Naval Research, May, pp. 817.
14. Curtiss, J. H. 1953. "The National Applied Mathematics Laboratories of the National Bureau of Standards." Progress report on the first five years. National Bureau of Standards Report, 1 April.
15. Cuthill, E. 1964. "Digital Computers in Nuclear Reactor Design." In F. L. Alt and M. Rubinoff (eds.),Advances in Computers, New York, Academic Press, 5, pp. 289348.
16. Greenwald, S., Alexander, S. N. and Haueter, R. C. 1955. "SEAC." National Bureau of Standards, Circular 551, pp. 526.
17. Hestenes, M. R. and Todd, J. 1985.NBSINA: The Institute for Numerical Analysis, UCLA 19471954. Unpublished manuscript, 1987. Prepared under the auspices of the Mathematical Association of America.
18. Holt, A. W. and Davis, W. W. 1953. "Computer Memory Uses Conventional CR Tubes,"Electronics, December, pp. 178182.
19. Householder, A. S. 1974. "The Gatlinburgs,"SIAM Review16, pp. 340343.
20. Huskey, H. D. 1980a. "The National Bureau of Standards Western Automatic Computer. (SWAC),"Annals of the History of Computing2, pp. 111121.
21. Huskey, H. D. 1980b. "The SWAC: The National Bureau of Standards Western Automatic Computer." In N. Metropolis, J. Howlett, and G.C. Rota (eds.),A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century, pp. 419431.
22. Huskey, H. D., Thorensen, R., Ambrosio, B. F., and Yowell, E. C. 1953. "The SWACDesign Features and Operating Experience,"Proceedings of the I.R.E.41, pp. 12931299.
23. Kevles, D. J. 1978.The Physicists, New York, Knopf.
24. Leiner, A. L., Alexander, S. N., and Witt, R. P. 1955. "DYSEAC," National Bureau of Standards, Circular 551, pp. 3971.
25. Leiner, A. L. 1954. "System Specifications for the DYSEAC,"Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery1, pp. 5781.
26. Lowan, A. N. 1949. "The Computation Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards."Scripta Mathematica15, pp. 3363.
27. MTAC Editors. 1951. "News" inMathematical Tables and other Aids to Computation5, pp. 6568.
28. National Bureau of Standards. 19471957. Annual Reports.
29. National Academy of Science. 1953. Ad Hoc Committee, "A Report to the Secretary of Commerce," 15 Oct.
30. New York Times Editors. 1953. "Wilson to Oppose Military Cutbacks,"New York TimesJune 9, p. 8.
31. Pike, J. L. and Ainsworth, E. F. 1955. "InputOutput Devices for NBS Computers," NBS Circular 551, pp. 109118.
32. Rees, M. 1982. "The Computing Program of the Office of Naval Research, 19461953,"Annals of the History of Computing4, pp. 102120.
33. Rees, M. 1980. "The Mathematical Sciences and World War II,"American Mathematical Monthly87, pp. 607 621.
34. Science News Letter Editors. 1953. "Defense Halts New Standards Research,"Science News Letter63, pp. 278.
35. Science News Letter Editors. 1953b. "Shift Standards Research,"Science News Letter64, p. 79.
36. Slutz, R. J., Holt, A. W., Witt, R. P., and Friedman, D. C. 1955. "HighSpeed Memory Development at the National Bureau of Standards," NBS Circular 551.
37. Slutz, R. J. 1980. "Memories of the Bureau of Standards' SEAC." In N. Metropolis, J. Howlett, and G. C. Rota (eds.),A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century, New York, Academic Press, pp. 471 478.
38. Stern, N. 1981.From ENIAC To UNIVAC. Bedford, Massachusetts, Digital Press.
39. Todd, J. 1975. "Numerical Analysis at the National Bureau of Standards."SIAM Review17, 2, pp. 361 370.
40. Todd, J. 1975. "Numerical Analysis at the National Bureau of Standards,"SIAM Review17, pp. 365.
41. Todd, J. 1980. "John Hamilton Curtiss, 19091977,"Annals of the History of Computing2, pp. 104110.
42. Weber, G. G. 1925.The Bureau of Standards: Its History, Activities and Organization, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press.
43. Wright, H., Shupe, P. D. Jr., and Cooper, J. W. 1955. "Operational Experience with SEAC," National Bureau of Standards Circular 551, pp. 119136.