The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.04 - October-December (1988 vol.10)
pp: 277-303
ABSTRACT
<p>Computer architecture concentrates on the logical aspects of computer design as opposed to the physical or electronic aspects. The underlying logical design of most modern computers is still based on that of the earliest electronic computers despite decades of progress in electronic circuitry. the innovations that have occurred in computer architecture have been driven by two different goals: higher performance and lower cost. Performance driven improvements have yielded computer systems with increasingly higher computation speeds and throughput. Cost driven improvements have yielded systems that are easier to use and applicable to a broader range of automatic control problems. Improvements in electronic circuitry have not led directly to architectural innovations; computers that pioneered new circuit technologies usually relied on older architectural concepts.</p>
CITATION
Richard E. Smith, "A Historical Overview of Computer Architecture", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.10, no. 4, pp. 277-303, October-December 1988, doi:10.1109/MAHC.1988.10039
REFERENCES
1. ACM. 1986.Proc. ACM Conference on the History of Personal Workstations, Association for Computing Machinery, New York.
2. Amdahl, G. M., G. A. Blaauw, and F. P. Brooks. Jr. 1964. "Architecture of System/360,"IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2, April, pp. 87-101.
3. Allen, F. E. 1984. "A Technological Review of the Early FORTRAN Compilers,"Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 6, no. 1, January, pp. 22-26.
4. Apollo. 1981. "Apollo System User's Guide," Apollo Computer, Chelmsford, Massachusetts.
5. Backus, J. 1979. "The History of FORTRAN I, II, and III,"Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 1, no. 1, July, pp. 21-37.
6. Baecker, R. and W. A. S. Buxton, 1987. "Case Study D: The Star, the Lisa, and the Macintosh," inReadings in Human-Computer Interaction, Baecker and Buxton, eds., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos, California.
7. Barnes, G. H., R. M. Brown, M. Kato, D. J. Kuck, D. L. Slotnick, and R. A. Stokes, 1968. "The Illiac IV Computer,"IEEE Transactions C-17, vol. 8, August, pp. 746-767; also in B&N, pp. 320-333.
8. Bashe, C. J., L. R. Johnson, J. H. Palmer, and E. W. Pugh. 1986.IBM's Early Computers. Cambridge, Mass., The MIT Press.
9. Bell, C. G., R. Cady, H. McFarland, B. A. Delagi, J. F. O'Loughlin, R. Noonan and W. A. Wulf. 1970. "A New Architecture for Minicomputers--The DEC PDP-11," Proc. SJCC, 1970, pp. 657-675: reprinted inComputer Engineering: A DEC View of Hardware Systems Design, Digital Press, Bedford, Massachusetts, 1978; also in SB&N, pp. 649-661.
10. Bell, C. G., and A. Newell, 1971.Computer Structures: Readings and Examples, McGraw-Hill, New York.
11. Bell, C. G., G. Butler, R. Gray, J. E. McNamara, D. Vonada, and R. Wilson, 1978. "The PDP-1 and Other 18-Bit Computers," inComputer Engineering: A DEC View of Hardware Systems Design, Digital Press, Bedford, Massachusetts.
12. C.G. Bell, J.C. Mudge, and J.E. McNamara,Computer Engineering, A DEC View of Hardware Systems Design, Digital Press/Digital Equipment Corp., Bedford, Mass., 1978, pp. 412-413.
13. Bell, C. G. and J. E. McNamara. 1978. "The PDP-8 and Other 12-Bit Computers," inComputer Engineering: A DEC View of Hardware Systems Design, Digital Press, Bedford, Massachusetts.
14. Bouknight, W. J., S. A. Denenberg, D. E. McIntyre, J. M. Randall, A. H. Sameh, and D. L. Slotnick, 1972. "The Illiac IV System,"Proc. IEEE, April, pp. 369- 379; excerpt in SB&N, pp. 306-316.
15. Blaauw, G. A., and F. P. Brooks, Jr. 1964. "The structure of System/360,"IBM Systems Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 119-135; also in B&N, pp. 588-601.
16. Blachman, N. M. 1953. "A Survey of Automatic Digital Computers," Publication PB 111293, Office of Technical Services, Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.
17. Bloch, E. 1959. "The engineering design of the Stretch computer,"Proc. FJCC, pp. 48-59; also in B&N, pp. 421-439.
18. Bowden, B. V. (ed.). 1953.Faster than Thought, Pitman Publishing Corporation, New York.
19. Buchholz, W. (ed.). 1962.Planning a Computer System: Project Stretch, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962.
20. Burks, A. W., H. H. Goldstine, and J. von Neumann. 1946. "Preliminary discussion of the logical design of an electronic computing instrument," Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey; also in B&N, pp. 92-119.
21. Campbell-Kelly, M. 1980. "Programming the Mark I: Early Programming Activity at the University of Manchester,"Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 2, no. 2, April, pp. 130-168.
22. CDC. 1968. "Control Data 6400/6500/6600 Computer Systems Reference Manual," Pub. No. 60100000, Revision F, Control Data Corporation, St. Paul, Minnesota.
23. Clark, W. A. 1957. "The Lincoln TX-2 Computer Development,"Proc. WJCC, pp. 143-145.
24. Dean, L. C. 1973. "Texas Instruments Advanced Scientific Computer,"Informatie Jrg., vol. 15, no. 4, April, pp. 191-193; excerpted in SB&N, pp. 759-762.
25. Dunwell, S. W. 1956. "Design Objectives of the IBM Stretch Computer,"Proc. EJCC, pp. 20-22.
26. Eckert, J. P. Jr., J. R. Weiner, H. F. Welsh, and H. F. Mitchell. 1951. "The Univac System,"Proc. Joint AIEE-IRE Computer Conference, Philadelphia, December, pp. 6-16; also in B&N, pp. 157-169.
27. Eckert, J. P. Jr., J. C. Chu, A. B. Tonik, and W. J. Schmidt. 1959. "Design of Univac-LARC System, Part I,"Proc. EJCC, pp. 59-65.
28. Eckert, J. P. Jr. 1956. "Univac-LARC: the Next Step in Computer Design,"Proc. EJCC, pp. 16-19.
29. P. Ein-Dor, "Grosch's law re-revisited: CPU power and the cost of computation,"Commun. ACM, vol. 28, pp. 142-151, Feb. 1985.
30. Engineering Research Associates. 1950.High Speed Computing Devices, McGraw-Hill, New York; republished by Tomash Publishers, 1983.
31. Everett, R. R. and F. E. Swain. 1947. "Whirlwind I Computer Block Diagrams," Report R-127, two volumes, Servomechanisms Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September, [report to the Office of Naval Research, classified CONFIDENTIAL and declassified by 1960].
32. Everett, R. R. 1951. "The Whirlwind I Computer,"Proc. Joint AIEE-IRE Computer Conference, Philadelphia, December, pp. 70-74; also in B&N, pp. 137-145.
33. Everett, R. R. (ed.). 1983. "Special Issue: SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment),"Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 5, no. 4, October.
34. Forgie, J. W. 1957. "The Lincoln TX-2 Input/Output System,"Proc. WJCC.
35. Goldstine, H. H. and A. Goldstine. 1946. "The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC),"Mathematical Tables and Aids to Computation, vol. 2, July, pp. 97-110.
36. Goldstine, H. H. 1972.The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press.
37. Gruenberger, F. J. 1979. "The History of the JOHNNIAC,"Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 1, no. 1, July, pp. 49-64.
38. Haanstra, J. W. et al. 1961. "Processor Products--Final Report of the SPREAD Task Group," IBM Corporation, December, reprinted inAnnals of the History of Computing, vol. 5, no. 1, January 1983.
39. Harvard Computation Laboratory. 1944A Manual of Operation for the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, reprinted by MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1985.
40. Harvard Computation Laboratory. 1947.Proceedings of a Symposium on Large-Scale Digital Calculating Machinery, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, reprinted by MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1985.
41. Howarth, D. J., R. B. Payne, and F. H. Sumner. 1961. "The Manchester University Atlas Operating System, Part II: User's Description,"Comp. J., vol. 4, October, pp. 226-229.
42. Hurd, C. C. 1980. "Computer Development at IBM," inA History of Computing in the Twentieth Century, N. Metropolis, J. Howlett, and Gian-Carlo Rota, eds., Academic Press, New York.
43. Hurd. C. C. 1981. "Early IBM Computers: Edited Testimony,"Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 3, no. 2, April, pp. 163-182.
44. Hurd, C. C. (ed.). 1986. "Special Issue: IBM 650,"Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 8, no. 1, January.
45. IBM. 1970. "IBM System/360 Principles of Operation," File No. S360-01, Ninth Edition, IBM Corporation, Poughkeepsie, New York, November.
46. IBM. 1974. "IBM System/370 Principles of Operation," File No. S/370-01, Fourth Edition, IBM Corporation, Poughkeepsie, New York, November.
47. IBM. 1981. "Product Announcement: The IBM Personal Computer," International Business Machines Corporation, Data Processing Division, White Plains, New York, 12 August.
48. Kilburn, T., D. J. Howarth, R. B. Payne, and F. H. Sumner. 1961. "The Manchester University Atlas Operating System, Part I: Internal Organization,"Comp. J., vol. 4, October, pp. 222-225.
49. Kilburn, T., D. B. G. Edwards, M. J. Lanigan, and F. H. Sumner. 1962. "One-level storage system,"IRE Transactions EC-11, vol. 2, April, pp. 223-235; also in SB&N, pp. 135-148.
50. Knight, K. E., and R. P. Cerveny. 1983. "Grosch's Law," inEncyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering, second edition, A. Ralston and E. D. Reilly, Jr., (eds.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
51. Lavington, S. 1975. "A History of Manchester Computers," NCC Publications; excerpted in SB&N, pp. 107-108.
52. Lee, J. A. N. 1985. "Reviews:Hackersby Steven Levy,"Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 7, no. 3, July, pp. 270-272.
53. T. E. Leonard, Ed.,VAX Architecture Reference Manual. Bedford, MA: Digital, 1987.
54. Levy, Steven.HACKERS, Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, (1984), pp. 187-195.
55. Lonergan, W. and P. King. 1961. "Design of the B5000 System,"Datamation, vol. 7, no. 5, May, pp. 28-32; also in B&N, pp. 267-273; and in SB&N, pp. 129- 134.
56. Mersel, J. 1956. "Program Interrupt on the Univac Scientific Computer,"Proc. WJCC, San Francisco, California, February, pp. 52-53.
57. Mitchell, J. L. and K. H. Olsen. 1956. "TX-0: A Transistor Computer,"Proc. EJCC, pp. 93-101.
58. Moore School of Electrical Engineering. 1946. "Theory and Techniques for Design of Electronic Digital Computers," lecture notes from a special course, 4 volumes, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 8 July to 31 August; reprinted asThe Moore School Lectures, M. Campbell-Kelly and M. R. Williams, eds., MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
59. Morse, S. P., W. B. Pohlman, and B. W. Ravenel. 1978. "The Intel 8086 Microprocessor: A 16-Bit Evolution of the 8080,"IEEE Computer, June, pp. 18-27.
60. Mullaney, F. C., 1951. "Design Features of the ERA 1101 Computer,"Proc. Joint AIEE-IRE Computer Conference, Philadelphia, December, pp. 43-49.
61. T.H. Myer and I.E. Sutherland, "On the Design of Display Processors,"CACM, Vol. 11, No. 6, June 1968, pp. 410-414.
62. Patterson, D. A. and C. H. Séquin. 1982. "A VLSI RISC,"IEEE Computer, vol. 15, no. 9, September, pp. 8-21.
63. Poorte, G. E. 1951. "The Operation and Logic of the MARK III Electronic Calculator in View of Operating Experience,"Proc. Joint AIEE-IRE Computer Conference, Philadelphia, December, pp. 50-55.
64. Randell, B. 1983. "Digital Computers, History," inEncyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering, second edition, Anthony Ralston and Edwin D. Reilly, Jr. (eds.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 532- 535.
65. Randell, B. and L. J. Russell. 1964.ALGOL 60 Implementation, Academic Press, London.
66. Redmond, Kent C. and Thomas M. Smith. 1980.Project Whirlwind: the History of a Pioneer Computer, Bedford, Mass, Digital Press.
67. Rees, M. 1982. "The Computing Program of ONR, 1946- 1953,"Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 4, no. 2, April, pp. 102-120.
68. Robertson, J. E. 1980. "The ORDVAC and the ILLIAC," inA History of Computing in the Twentieth Century, N. Metropolis, J. Howlett, and G. Rota (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 347-364.
69. Rosen, S. "Electronic Computers: A Historical Survey."Computing Surveys, 1, 1, pp. 7-36.
70. Rosin, R. F. (ed.). 1987. "Special Issue: The Burroughs B5000,"Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 9, no. 1.
71. R. M. Russel, "The CRAY-1 computer system,"Commun. ACM, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 63-72, Jan. 1978.
72. Sammet, J. E. 1987. "Answers to Self-Study Questions," Vol. 9, No. 2,Ann. Hist. Comp., p. 217.
73. Sharpless, T. K. et al. 1946. "Progress Report 2 on The EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Computer)," 2 volumes, Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsyslvania, Philadelphia, 30 June, [report to the Army Ordinance Department, classified CONFIDENTIAL and declassified by 1960].
74. D. P. Siewiorek, C. Gordon Bell, and A. Newell,Computer Structures, Principles and Examples. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.
75. Smith, A. E. 1948. "A Survey of Large Scale Computers and Computer Projects," Office of Naval Research, Navy Department, Washington, D.C., August [classified RESTRICTED when published and declassified in 1955].
76. Stern, N. 1981.From ENIAC to UNIVAC, An Appraisal of the Eckert-Mauchly Computers, Digital Press, Bedford, Massachusetts.
77. Sumner, F. H., G. Haley, and E. C. Y. Chen. 1962. "The Central Control Unit of the 'Atlas' Computer,"Proc. IFIP Cong., pp. 657-662.
78. Texas Instruments, Inc. 1975.TMS1000 Programmer's Reference Manual; excepted in SB&N, pp. 587-599.
79. Thacker, C. P., E. M. McCreight, B. W. Lampson, R. F. Sproull, and D. R. Boggs. 1979. "Alto: A Personal Computer," Xerox Corporation, Palo Alto, California; also in SB&N, pp. 549-572.
80. Thornton, J. E. 1964. "Parallel Operation in the Control Data 6600,"Proc. FJCC, vol. 26, pt. 2, pp. 33- 40: also in SB&N, pp. 730-736.
81. Thornton, J. E. 1980. "The CDC 6600 Project,"Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 2, no. 4, October, pp. 338-348.
82. Tomash, E. and A. A. Cohen. 1979. "The Birth of an ERA: Engineering Research Associates, Inc. 1946- 1955,"Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 1, no. 2, October, pp. 83-97.
83. Von Neumann, J. 1945. "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC," 30 June; reprinted in Stern,From ENIAC to UNIVAC: A Case Study in the History of Technology, Digital Press, Bedford, Massachusetts, 1981.
84. Warren, J. 1977. "Personal and hobby computing: an overview,"IEEE Computer, vol. 10, no. 3, March, pp. 10-22.
85. Watson, W. J. 1972. "The TI ASC: A Highly Modular and Flexible Super Computer Architecture,"Proc. AFIPS FJCC, pp. 221-228; also in SB&N, pp. 753- 759.
86. Weik, M. H. 1961. "A third survey of domestic electronic digital computing systems," Report 1114, Ballistic Research Lab, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Aberdeen, Maryland, March.
87. Wexelblat, R. L. (ed.) 1981.Proc. History of Programming Languages Conference, Academic Press, New York: preprint appeared inACM SIGPLAN Notices, vol. 13, no. 8, August 1978.
88. Wilkes, M. V. 1951. "The Best Way to Design An Automatic Calculating Machine,"Manchester University Computer Inaugural Conference, Ferranti Ltd., London, July; also inAnnals of the History of Computing, vol. 8, no. 2, April, 1986, pp. 118-121.
89. Wilkes, M. V. 1951. "The EDSAC Computer,"Proc. Joint AIEE-IRE Computer Conference, Philadelphia, December, pp. 79-83.
90. Wilkes, M. V., D. J. Wheeler, and S. Gill. 1951.The Preparation of Programs for an Electronic Digital Computer, Addison-Wesley, Cambridge.
91. Wilkes, M. V. and J. B. Stringer. 1953. "Micro-Programming and the Design of the Control Circuits in an Electronic Digital Computer,"Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, pt. 2, vol. 49, April, pp. 230-238; reprinted inAnnals of the History of Computing, vol. 8, no. 2, April, 1986, pp. 121-126; also in B&N, pp. 335-340; and in SB&N, pp. 158- 163.
92. Williams, F. C. and T. Kilburn, 1951. "The University of Manchester Computing Machine,"Proc. Joint AIEE-IRE Computer Conference, Philadelphia, December, pp. 57-61.
93. Wozniak, S. 1977. "The Apple II,"Byte, vol. 2, no. 5, May.
6 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool