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JOSS: Conversational Computing for the Nonprogrammer
January-March 1982 (vol. 4 no. 1)
pp. 35-52

JOSS, the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System, is a conversational time-sharing system developed at the Rand Corporation to demonstrate, on a small scale, the value of time-sharing and easy access to computing power for the nonprogrammer. In three computer implementations from May 1963 to the 198Os, JOSS has provided an English-like language that is easy to learn and use by trial and error at a terminal. Thus this earliest of simple on-line systems has enabled the computer novice to explore to advantage many small computational problems that might not be worth the effort in another computing environment.

Citation:
Shirley L. Marks, "JOSS: Conversational Computing for the Nonprogrammer," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 35-52, Jan.-March 1982, doi:10.1109/MAHC.1982.10004
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