This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Revisiting Using the Results of Pre-Executed Instructions in Runahead Processors
ISSN: 1556-6056
Sonya Wolff, University of Oklahoma Home, Norman El Reno
Ronald Barnes, The University of Oklahoma, Norman
Long-latency cache accesses cause significant performance-impacting delays for both in-order and out-of-order processor systems. To address these delays, runahead pre-execution has been shown to produce speedups by warming-up cache structures during stalls caused by long-latency memory accesses. While improving cache related performance, basic runahead approaches do not otherwise utilize results from accurately pre-executed instructions during normal operation. This simple model of execution is potentially inefficient and performance constraining. However, a previous study showed that exploiting the results of accurately pre-executed runahead instructions for out-of-order processors provide little performance improvement over simple re-execution. This work will show that, unlike out-of-order runahead architectures, the performance improvement from runahead result use for an in-order pipeline is more significant, on average, and in some situations provides dramatic performance improvements. For a set of SPEC CPU2006 benchmarks which experience performance improvement from basic runahead, the addition of result use to the pipeline provided an additional speedup of 1.14X (high – 1.48X) for an in-order processor model compared to only 1.05X (high – 1.16X) for an out-of-order one. When considering benchmarks with poor data cache locality, the average speedup increased to 1.21X for in-order compared to only 1.10X for out-of-order.
Index Terms:
Pipelines,Benchmark testing,Pipeline processing,Registers,Hidden Markov models,Out of order,C.1.5.e Memory hierarchy,C.1.5.c Superscalar dynamically-scheduled and statically-scheduled implementation
Sonya Wolff, Ronald Barnes, "Revisiting Using the Results of Pre-Executed Instructions in Runahead Processors," IEEE Computer Architecture Letters, 26 Sept. 2013. IEEE computer Society Digital Library. IEEE Computer Society, <>
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.