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Computing Accurate AVFs using ACE Analysis on Performance Models: A Rebuttal
January-June 2008 (vol. 7 no. 1)
pp. 21-24
ACE (Architecturally Correct Execution) analysis computes AVFs (architectural vulnerability factors) of hardware structures. AVF expresses the fraction of radiation-induced transient faults that result in a user-visible error. Architects usually perform this analysis on a high-level performance model to quickly compute per-structure AVFs. If, however, low-level details of a microarchitecture are not modeled appropriately in a performance model, then their effects may not be reflected in the per-structure AVFs. In this paper we refute Wang, et. al.?s claim that this detail is difficult to model and imposes a practical threshold on ACE analysis that forces its estimates to have a high error margin. We show that carefully choosing a small amount of additional detail can result in a much tighter AVF bound than Wang, et. al. were able to achieve in their refined ACE analysis. Even the inclusion of small details, such as read/write pointers and appropriate inter-structure dependencies, can increase the accuracy of the AVF computation by 40% or more. We argue that this is no different than modeling the IPC (instructions per cycle) of a microprocessor pipeline. A less detailed performance model will provide less accurate IPCs. AVFs are no different.
Index Terms:
Performance and Reliability, Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
Arijit Biswas, Paul Racunas, Joel Emer, Shubhendu Mukherjee, "Computing Accurate AVFs using ACE Analysis on Performance Models: A Rebuttal," IEEE Computer Architecture Letters, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 21-24, Jan.-June 2008, doi:10.1109/L-CA.2007.19
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